Duke of Norfolk

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Coat of arms of the Duke of Norfolk (since 1660)

Duke of Norfolk (German Duke of Norfolk ) is a British title of nobility , which was awarded in the Peerage of England once as a life peerage and three times as a hereditary title.

The current title of the third hereditary bestowal from 1483 is the oldest still existing English dukedom. The title holder is the highest ranking Duke of England and thus the highest ranking nobleman in the entire United Kingdom outside of the royal family. At the coronation of British monarchs , the Duke of Norfolk represents all Dukes in the homage . He is also Earl Marshal , Hereditary Marshal of England.


Coat of arms of Thomas de Mowbray 1399

First Hereditary Award and Life Peerage

The title was first created on September 29, 1397 by King Richard II for Thomas Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham from the Mowbray family . He had already been raised to Earl of Nottingham on February 12, 1383 and had inherited the titles 6th Baron Mowbray and 7th Baron Segrave from his deceased older brother in 1382 .

At the same time, on September 29, 1397, his grandmother Margaret Plantagenet, 2nd Countess of Norfolk was raised for life to Duchess of Norfolk . She was a niece of Richard II and had inherited the title of Countess of Norfolk from her father in 1338 . When she died on March 24, 1399, her dukedom became extinct, her earl title was inherited by her grandson, the aforementioned 1st Duke of Norfolk as 3rd Earl of Norfolk.

When Richard II fell, the duke had to flee into exile and died on September 22, 1399 in Venice. The first parliament of the new King Henry IV declared the award of the Dukedom from 1397 on October 6, 1399 null and void and revoked the title, whereby the Dukes' eldest son, Thomas de Mowbray, only his remaining title as 4th Earl of Norfolk etc. . inherited. When he was executed in 1405 for participating in a rebellion, the title fell to his younger brother John Mowbray as 5th Earl of Norfolk. He obtained that the title of 2nd Duke of Norfolk was restored to him on April 30, 1425 . His grandson, John Mowbray , was - before he inherited his father as the 4th Duke of Norfolk in 1461 - on March 24, 1451 was also made Earl of Surrey and Warenne . When he died on January 17, 1476, he left no sons or other male heirs, so that the Dukedom and the Earldom of Nottingham, Surrey and Warenne became extinct. His remaining titles went to his only daughter Anne Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk .

Second hereditary bestowal

Anne Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk, was a wealthy heiress and was married to King Edward IV's second eldest son , Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York , at the age of five . The latter had already been raised to the Duke of York on May 28, 1474 and was raised to the Duke of Norfolk and Earl of Warenne on February 7, 1477 . In the context of the Wars of the Roses , King Richard III let him . Imprisoned in 1483 and presumably murdered in the Tower of London . York's illegitimacy was also declared by the Titulus Regius , a parliamentary resolution in 1484.

Third hereditary bestowal

Instead of York, King Richard III. on June 28, 1483 the Duketitel to John Howard, 1st Baron Howard of the Howard family . His mother was Lady Margaret Mowbray, a daughter of the 1st Dukes first award. Howard had already been awarded the title of Baron Howard on October 15, 1470 , together with the Dukedom, he was also awarded the inheritance of Marshal of England as Earl Marshal . In the course of the Wars of the Roses, like Richard III, he fell at the Battle of Bosworth on August 22, 1485. The victorious new King Henry VII had him ostracized by Parliament on November 7, 1485 for high treason ( Bill of Attainder ) and his Revoke title. The opposition to the kings, the ostracism of the Howards, and the subsequent restoration of their titles would be repeated over the next two centuries.

Howard's son, Thomas Howard , had been promoted to Earl of Surrey on June 28, 1483 , but was ostracized, like his father, on November 7, 1485 and lost his title. In 1489 he was rehabilitated and restored to him at least the title of Earl of Surrey. It was not until February 1, 1514 that he received the title of Duke of Norfolk back.

His son, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk , was reinstated as Earl Marshal of England on May 28, 1533. As the uncle of Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard , however, he eventually drew the mistrust of their husband, King Henry VIII , was ostracized for high treason on January 20, 1547, and, like his father and grandfather, lost all his titles. He escaped execution only through the interim death of the king and remained imprisoned until Queen Maria I rehabilitated him in 1554 and restored his title.

His grandson and heir, Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk , supported two conspiracies to replace Queen Elizabeth I with the Catholic Maria Stuart , but was arrested and ostracized on January 16, 1572 for high treason, also lost all his titles and was executed on June 2, 1572. Since then, the Howards, who are still strictly Catholic, have been the spearhead of the English Catholic nobility. His wife was Mary FitzAlan († 1557), the last of the house FitzAlan , which was a tribe with the Stewart clan (and thus the Scottish royal house of Stuart ). As a result of this marriage, the title Earl of Arundel and the ownership of Arundel Castle passed from the extinct FitzAlans to the Howards in 1580 , just as both had passed from the Aubigny to the FitzAlan by marriage in 1243 . The wooden castle, built in 1067 on a steep moth hill, has been renewed again and again and expanded into a castle in its outer bailey, has been inherited from 1102 until today and is still the seat of the Dukes of Norfolk. To preserve the memory of the original Lords of Arundel, the 14th Duke changed the family name of the Norfolk ducal line to Fitzalan-Howard in the 19th century .

The dukedom was not restored to the 4th Duke's great-great-grandson until December 29, 1660, when Thomas Howard, 23rd Earl of Arundel, became 5th Duke of Norfolk. King Charles II of the House of Stuart restored the Dukedom at the unanimous request of the House of Lords . The 5th Duke was also entitled: 23rd Earl of Arundel , 6th Earl of Surrey , 3rd Earl of Norfolk , 16th Baron Mowbray , 17th Baron Segrave , 14th Baron Furnivall , 18th Baron Strange of Blackmere , 16 . Baron Talbot , 13th Baron Maltravers and 3rd Baron FitzAlan, Clun and Oswaldestre His brother and heir Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk was born on March 27, 1669 also to Baron Howard of Castle Rising and on 19 October 1672 and to Earl of Norwich and Earl Marshal of England. On the death of his grandson, the 9th Duke of Norfolk, in 1777 the titles Earl of Norwich and Baron Howard of Castle Rising expired; the baronies of Mowbray, Segrave, Talbot, Strange of Blackmere and Furnivall fell in Abeyance between the two daughters of his brother Philip Howard (1688-1750); the Dukedom of Norfolk, the Earldoms of Arundel, Surrey, Norfolk and Marshal and the baronies Maltravers and FitzAlan, Clun and Oswaldestre fell to his great-great-nephew as the 10th Duke.

In 1842 the 14th Duke added his surname Howard to Fitzalan-Howard with royal permission . Before the future 17th Duke, Miles Fitzalan-Howard inherited the Dukedom and the subordinate titles in 1975 from his fourth uncle, he had the title of 12th Baron Beaumont from his mother in 1971 and the title of 4th Baron Howard of from his father in 1972 Inherited Glossop . Today's title holder has been his son Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk , since 2002 .

All of the aforementioned titles belong to the Peerage of England with the exception of the Barony Howard of Glossop, which belongs to the Peerage of the United Kingdom . The Heir Apparent des Dukes bears the courtesy title Earl of Arundel (and Surrey) , whose Heir Apparent that of the Baron Maltravers .

Arundel Castle

The family seat of the Dukes of Norfolk has been Arundel Castle in West Sussex since 1660 . They also live in Carlton Towers in Yorkshire . The castles Framlingham Castle , Bungay Castle and Clun Castle are at least in parts only ruins. As far as individual buildings are still there, they are no longer regularly inhabited by the Dukes.

List of the Dukes of Norfolk

Duke of Norfolk, first bestowal (1397)

Duchess of Norfolk (Life Peerage, 1397)

Duke of Norfolk, second bestowal (1481)

Duke of Norfolk, third bestowal (1483)

Heir to the title is the son of the current title holder, Henry Miles Fitzalan-Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey (* 1987).

Individual evidence

  1. arundelcastle.org ( Memento of the original dated February 13, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.arundelcastle.org

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