Geodetic reference system 1980
The Geodetic Reference System 1980 ( GRS 80 , English Geodetic Reference System 1980 ) is an earth model that includes the most important parameters of the earth's shape , the earth's rotation and the gravitational field .
The reference ellipsoid of the GRS 80 serves the European spatial reference system ETRS89 as a geometrical calculation and mapping surface and with it forms the geodetic datum for uniform national surveying . The compliant UTM mapping is used as the mapping system. In Germany, the Gauss-Krüger coordinates related to the Bessel ellipsoid ( Potsdam date ) and the Krassowski ellipsoid ( Pulkovo date ) are converted to GRS80 and UTM.
GRS 80 was adopted in 1979 at the general assembly of the IUGG , the international umbrella organization for geodesy and geophysics , and published in detail in 1980 by the head of the study group, Helmut Moritz , after consultation with the International Astronomical Union (IAU) .
The four defining geometric and physical parameters are:
|Major semi-axis / equator radius|
Gravitational constant times earth mass
(more precisely measurable than the individual factors)
|Difference in the main moments of inertia related to M ⊕ a 2
(without the influence of tidal forces )
(including information on the orientation of the axis of rotation and the prime meridian )
The derived parameters for describing the shape of the Earth's ellipsoid are:
|Small semi-axis / pole half-axis|
|Parameters of Earth flattening|
- Bernhard Heckmann: Introduction of the ETRS89 / UTM position reference system when switching to ALKIS. In: Communications of the DVW Hessen-Thüringen, 1/2005, p. 17 ff.
- Ralf Strehmel: Official reference system for the situation - ETRS89. Surveying Brandenburg, 1/1996 ( PDF ).
- Bernhard Heck: Calculation methods and evaluation models for national surveying. Karlsruhe 1987.
- Hans-Gert Kahle : Introduction to Higher Geodesy . 2nd, revised and expanded edition. Verlag der Fachvereine, Zurich 1988.
- International Association of Geodesy (IAG): Geodesist's Handbook 1980.
- Helmut Moritz: Geodetic Reference System 1980 (MS Word document, if the formulas are not displayed: Ctrl-A Alt-F9; DOC file; 63 kB)