Handling device

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Industrial robot handles sheet metal on a press brake

As a handling device or handling device , also handling system , handling module , balancer or manipulator , ( English handling device , handling equipment ) is a device in automation technology and drive technology that manages the flow of material from or to an active point, i.e. is used for handling .

Handling devices belong to the class of industrial robots . The handling is transporting and storing to distinguish, both also feature as "cause of material flow," but no defined orientation of the workpiece cause. They are dealt with in a separate VDI guideline 2860. In manipulation, a defined pose of a geometrically defined object is either created or maintained for a limited time. Further requirements can be added (see below "Handling functions"). Typical handling devices are program-controlled , e.g. B. industrial robots or insertion devices .

The terms handling systems and handling modules are mainly used in linear technology , where, for example, entire gantry robots (similar to the dosing system shown in the picture on the right) are set up for handling purposes with the help of aluminum profiles, linear guides and various linear drives .

With pick-and-place applications handling devices are referred to, by means of a gripper take up components and placing at the destination. Depending on the required positioning accuracy, a positioning system can also be used.


Handling device with column in use


One possibility is to equip the manipulator with a column, similar to a column-mounted slewing crane. The working radius is a little smaller, but no steel structure or rail system is required.


By hanging the manipulator in a rail system, it is possible to ensure a very large working radius. The basic requirement is an infrastructure, for example a steel structure. The rails are designed in such a way that the friction that occurs when the rail car is moved is reduced to a minimum.

Handling functions

This article or section consists mainly of lists, which should be replaced by running text . Please help Wikipedia improve this. More about is here to find.

to save

  1. Bunkering (unordered storage)
  2. Magazining (orderly storage)
  3. Pile
  4. Palletizing

Changing the amount

  1. To share
  2. Branch
  3. Unite
  4. seperate
  5. Portioning


  1. identity

To back up

  1. Tension (hold)
    • frictional clamping
    • form-fit clamping
    • frictional clamping
    • To grab
  2. Relax (release)


  1. Positioning
  2. Orientate
  3. Organize
  4. Move
  5. Panning
  6. Promote
  7. Rotate
  8. Passing on (round clocks)
  9. Passing on (linear clocks)
  10. Acting (advancing)

Handling devices usually take on several of the above functions, but are differentiated according to their main device function. A vibratory spiral conveyor also takes on functions such as bunkering, feeding and checking, but its main function is to organize.

Parameters of handling kinematics (handling systems)

Kinematics parameters can be divided into four areas. Categories that apply generally to technical products such as maintenance or service life are not included.

Geometry parameters

  1. How is the room divided?
  2. How is the system delimited mechanically?
  3. How many degrees of freedom does the flange have to the end effector ?

Characteristics of the load

What loads are possible on the flange to the end effector due to weight and inertia?

Kinematics parameters

What speeds and accelerations are possible?

Accuracy parameters

Which path and position accuracies can be achieved?

It should be noted that the parameters of accuracy, kinematics (such as cycle time ) and load (such as payload ) are heavily dependent on one another. When a handling robot approaches a position, overshoot occurs. The system settles more and more precisely at the target position within the required stabilization time. The specification of the accuracy of a robot is therefore only meaningful in connection with the cycle time. The following terms are explained in more detail in VDI 2860:

  1. drift
  2. Interchangeability
  3. Stabilization time
  4. Overshoot

It is questionable whether a sufficient description and evaluation of handling kinematics is possible with parameters alone. Knowledge of components and the kinematic structure is recommended for this.

Axis components of handling kinematics

Outline for axle components

  1. drive
  2. Power transmission system
  3. Position measuring system
  4. storage

In handling kinematics, weak points and errors can be caused primarily by friction and play in the bearings and by the resolution of the position measuring systems. Faults due to static deformation and dynamic flexibility of the overall structure should also be mentioned here.


Most manipulators are based on a pneumatic system; In other words, compressed air in a cylinder ensures that the loads become weightless. The loads are recognized either by an automatic scale on the gripper or by presetting by the worker.

Coupling with a programmable logic controller (PLC) is also possible. This simplifies complex processes with electrical support. The device can also be changed more easily if changes are foreseeable.

Advantages and disadvantages

The strengths of human work are transferred to the machine:

  1. Advantage of human sensors, d. that is, the ability of humans to intervene in the event of problems. Examples would be if the parts were wrong in the carrier, or if a person appeared in the work area.
  2. Depending on the requirements and specific applications, the effort and speed are more advantageous. An example would be the case of an automobile manufacturer. He realized that the effort for a qualified technician who monitored the industrial robot was higher than that of a direct operator, with the same speed.

The disadvantages of human work are also transferred to the machine:

  1. In the event of illness, the machine stops.
  2. The manipulator is only ever as fast as the human.


Manipulators do not fall under the crane category . See BGV D6 cranes §2.


  • Stefan Hesse, Heinz Schmidt, Uwe Schmidt: manipulator practice . Vieweg Verlag, 2001, ISBN 978-3-528-03949-3 .
  • Stefan Hesse, Heinz Schmidt: Rationalization with balancers and lifting units. Basics and practical application . Expert-Verlag, 2000, ISBN 978-3-8169-1424-2 .
  • VDI: VDI guideline 2860: Assembly and handling technology; Handling functions, handling devices; Terms, definitions, symbols . 1990.
  • VDI guideline 2861: Assembly and handling technology; Parameters for industrial robots . 1988.