|Juodkrantė / Schwarzort|
|Inhabitants (place) :||720|
|Time zone :||EET (UTC + 2)|
|Telephone code :||(+370) 469|
|Postal code :||93017|
municipality of Neringa
Juodkrantė ( Nehrungskurisch : Šatnūrta or Šatnūrte , German Black Coast , until 1945: Schwarzort ) is the second largest settlement on the Curonian Spit in Lithuania with around 720 inhabitants . It is located approximately in the center of the Lithuanian side of the Spit on the regional road KK 167 Klaipeda ( Memel ) - Zelenogradsk ( Cranz ) and, together with the neighboring farmstead Alksnyne the District Juodkrantės seniūnija the municipality of Neringa .
Schwarzort in Prussia, which was first mentioned by name in 1429, belonged to the main office in Memel in the Samland district until 1740. The main offices at that time had the layout of later (rural) districts, the districts of the later administrative districts.
From 1740 to 1795 Schwarzort was parish in the Karwaiten parish. In 1795 the church was moved to Schwarzort. After the division of Prussia in counties in 1818 the parish belonged to Schwarzort Office Prökuls in county Memel in the administrative district of Kaliningrad .
Since the middle of the 19th century, both Schwarzort and Nidden were known bathing resorts for many holidaymakers and in some cases also as a health resort; from 1858 the steamers sailed from Memel and later also from Tilsit . Among other things, many well-known writers had their summer houses there. There was also a synagogue there.
The Berlin landscape painter Gustav Fenkohl (1872–1950) lived in Schwarzort in his youth.
In 1920 the northern part of the Curonian Spit, together with the part of East Prussia north of the Memel , came under the administration of the Memel as a Memel area and was conquered shortly afterwards by Lithuanian militants . Although more than a third of the population was Lithuanian as their mother tongue, the vast majority voted for German parties in elections. After years of emergency, Lithuania returned the Memelland to the German Reich in March 1939 under pressure from the National Socialist government. In 1945 it was conquered by the Soviet Union and added to the Lithuanian Soviet Republic . In 1961 the Neringa community was formed from the villages on the Lithuanian side of the spit.
After Lithuania gained independence in 1991 and acceded to the EU in 2004, Juodkrantė opened up to tourism from Western countries.
Around 1855, 1860 and 1861 amber was found during excavation work in the Curonian Lagoon (now called Kuršių marios ). The company Stantien & Becker then deliberately extracted amber through dredging. In the period from 1860 to 1890, the average annual output was 75 tons. This contributed to the faster development of the church. Today's port was created in the course of this amber dredging.
In 1882, during dredging work to expand the Königsberg-Memel fairway, 434 amber artefacts were found, most of which were lost during the Second World War. The 17 preserved objects are the property of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation and are kept at the University of Göttingen. The amber jewelry, including numerous amulets, dates from the early Bronze Age , around 2,200 BC. These are the oldest known amber carvings from the Baltic Sea region.
The amber researcher Richard Klebs , together with the company Stantien & Becker and the archaeologist Otto Tischler, documented the amber finds from the Stone Age in East Prussia. Plaster copies were made of some figurines before the Second World War, and amber copies were made of two particularly outstanding objects, which were made by Lithuanian amber carvers.
In Juodkrantė there is, among other things, the Ragannas Kalnas (German Witch Mountain ), on which many wooden statues to the associated Lithuanian fairy tales have been placed since 1979.
In the course of the silting up of Karwaiten (now Lithuanian: Karvaičiai), numerous villagers moved from there to Schwarzort in order to find a new place to stay. Here the residents began to build a church together, which was completed in 1796. It was a small wooden church. In 1878, however, the church went up in flames. A new building was built in a neo-Gothic style with bricks with a choir and west tower, which was inaugurated in 1885. The church survived the war. In the time of the Soviet Union, however, the old equipment was lost and the building was used for a purpose other than storage. At the end of the 1980s, the building began to be restored. a. with stained glass on the windows. The church was temporarily used as a miniature museum until it was restored for worship purposes in 1989.
Until 1945 the inhabitants of Schwarzort were almost without exception Protestant . Connected to Memel (now Lithuanian: Klaipėda) until 1740 , the village belonged to the Karwaiten parish until 1795 , before the church and village were buried under the sand there. The parish of Schwarzort has existed since then and had its own pastor until 1945. The parish was embedded in the Memel church district within the church province of East Prussia of the Church of the Old Prussian Union . Since 1989 a congregation has been meeting again in the church that now belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Lithuania .
During the period of church independence, 22 Protestant clergymen officiated there, although the last pastor in Karwaiten had already resided here because his rectory in Schwarzort was silted up:
- Georg Benjamin Kuwert, 1787–1795
- Hermann Christian D. Wittich, 1796-1800
- Christoph Wilke, 1800–1812
- Gottfried Lebrecht Ostermeyer, 1812–1819
- Friedrich Ernst G. Kempfer, 1820–1823
- Georg Heinrich Rappolt, 1823–1828
- Carl Eduard Ziegler, 1828–1832
- Adolf Gustav Eduard Kuwert, 1832–1852
- Carl Eduard Copinus, 1852-1859
- Julius Otto Passarge, 1859–1864
- Rudolf Friedrich Th. Glogau, 1864–1866
- Anton Gustav Laudien, 1867–1870
- Emil August D. Hundertmark, 1870–1876
- Friedrich Otto Edwin Richter, 1877–1885
- Karl Orisch, 1886–1888
- Franz Karl Hugo Gregor, 1888–1893
- Otto Wilhelm Franz Petrenz, 1893–1894
- Louis Henrich Paul Lotto, from 1897
- Martin Schencke, 1922–1927
- Emil Otto Bömeleit, 1927–1941
- Martin Kerschies, 1941–1945
- Baptisms: Years 1847 to 1875, also list of names 1746 to 1938
- Weddings: born between 1819 and 1874
- Burials: Years 1820 to 1874, also list of names from 1820 to 1913
Juodkrantė's sons and daughters
- Martin Kakies (1894–1987), German teacher and publicist
- Mike Reich, Joachim Reitner : From the Königsberg amber collection: Schwarzorter finds . Brochure. Göttingen 2014. Online version
- Information center Nida (German, English, French, Russian, Lithuanian)
- Alexander August Mützell, Leopold Krug: New topographical-statistical-geographical dictionary of the Prussian state , Volume 3 (1821), p. 256
- B. Kosmowska-Ceranowicz: The tourist amber route to the Amber Coast. In Amber - Views - Opinions. Gdansk, Warsaw 2006. ISBN 83-912894-1-9 .
- R. Klebs: The amber jewelry of the Stone Age from the excavation near Schwarzort and other localities in Prussia. In: Contributions to the natural history of Prussia 5, Königsberg 1882
- U. Erichson and W. Weitschat: Baltic amber. Ribnitz-Damgarten 2008
- Encyclopedia Lituanica I: 84-87, Boston 1970; Quoted in: Patty C. Rice: Amber - The Golden Gem Of The Ages. New York 1987
- Juodkrante - Schwarzort at ostpreussen.net
- Friedwald Moeller, Old Prussian Evangelical Pastors' Book from the Reformation to the Expulsion in 1945 , Hamburg, 1968, page 137
- Christa Stache, Directory of the Church Books in the Evangelical Central Archives in Berlin , Part I: The Eastern Church Provinces of the Evangelical Church of the Old Prussian Union , Berlin, 1992³, page 206