The camp is part of risk especially in storage-intensive enterprises to the most important business risks . These include above all trade ( wholesale , retail ) or industry ( plant , aircraft or shipbuilding ). Warehouse-intensive operations are companies where the share of storage costs in the total costs or the share of inventory in the total assets is significant and makes up more than 25% of the assets. Inventory risks represent an inventory risk, which also includes the risk from a portfolio . Inventory consists of raw materials , consumables and supplies , semi-finished products , intermediates and finished products ( goods , commodities ) together. They are all exposed to storage risks, to varying degrees. No storage risk wearing pure order-based entrepreneurs (such as the commission ), a relatively low inventory risk, the company remission rights such as the bookstore .
Storage risks consist of storage quantity risk, storage quality risk and storage value risk. The storage quantity risk relates to the total or partial loss (through theft , shrinkage ) or destruction (through fire , natural disasters , vandalism ) of stored inventories. The stock quantity risk can also consist of the risk of insufficient stocks, which affects the readiness for delivery . The storage quality risk is the risk of spoilage , damage , corrosion or deterioration in age . The inventory value risk is the result of an actual Lagermengen- and / or storage quality and risk is the risk of impairment of the stock.
The dangers of a drop in market price , a change in fashion , the technical obsolescence of stored goods or the appearance of competing products, which are often counted as storage risks , are neither a storage quantity nor a storage quality risk, but a market price risk .
Insurance and accounting
The storage risk is only against the Lagermengen- and storage quality risk insurable ( theft -, fire , business interruption insurance ), making it the insurance claim for loss adjustment comes. Additional accounting for impairments is then not permitted. Uninsurable or insurable, but uninsured storage risks are subject to the current assets to the strict lower of the para. 4 HGB . According to this, assets of the current assets are to be depreciated in order to set them at a lower value resulting from a stock exchange or market price on the balance sheet date . The book value of stolen or otherwise lost, uninsured inventory is to be booked out as “Losses from the disposal of fixed assets” as “Other operating expenses” ( (2) No. 8 HGB).
One of the most important commercial functions is the balance between the time of manufacture and consumption , which is bridged by storage . In the margins therefore trade storage risk is taken into account.
An increasing sales volume ensures a decreasing inventory risk and vice versa. The higher the order quantity in procurement , the higher the average inventory and the higher the storage costs and storage risk. Storage risks in general can be reduced by just-in-time production because it leads to a reduction in inventories. Warehouse risks are closely related to the economic key figure of the inventory turnover rate , which is particularly important in industrial and trading companies with intensive inventory management . The higher the inventory turnover, the lower the inventory risk and capital commitment and vice versa. A higher inventory turnover leads to the release of capital , which in turn improves a company's liquidity and reduces inventory risks. A high inventory turnover rate also improves profitability and therefore profit . Chain stores with their high space costs ( rental prices in the best business location ) are dependent on a high inventory turnover rate in order to compensate for the disadvantageous cost effect. Finally, a high inventory turnover rate also shortens the storage period (the length of time goods remain in the warehouse), which in turn reduces the storage risks of spoilage, damage or shrinkage.
- Lorenz Wolkersdorf, Essence and Significance of Plant Intensity in Industrial Operations , 1956, p. 32
- Silvia Rogler, Risk Management in Industrial Operations , 2002, p. 121
- Torsten M. Kühlmann / Hans-Dieter Haas, International Risk Management , 2009, p. 37
- Reinhold Henzler, Betriebswirtschaftslehre des Außenhandel , 1970, p. 77
- Willy Schneider / Alexander Hennig, Lexicon Key Figures for Marketing and Sales , 2008, p. 209