List of karate terms
This list includes technical terms in the field of the martial art Karate , which come from the Japanese language and teach the skills and techniques of serious physical confrontation with an opponent.
Attack / defense areas
There are three target regions in karate:
- Gedan 下 段 - the lower part of the body, from the feet to the hips.
- Chūdan 中段 - the middle area of the body, from the hip to the neck.
- Jōdan 上 段 - the upper part of the body, from the neck to the head.
With Ichi , Roku and Hachi the final vowel is swallowed or can be heard very faintly, e.g. B. often at Roku . With Shichi , the i is swallowed by Shi, not by chi.
When things, objects or abstracts are counted, a counting word is added to the number words as a suffix , depending on the type of things counted. Examples:
- long thin objects, also transferred for punches: 本 hon
一 本 Ippon, 二 本 Nihon, 三 本 Sanbon, 四 本 Yonhon ...
- Belt ranking system for student grades: 級 Kyū
一級 Ikkyū, 二級 Nikyū, 三級 Sankyū, 四級 Yonkyū, 五級 Gokyū, 六級 Rokkyū, 七級 Nanakyū, 八級 Hachikyū, 九 級 kukyū
- Belt ranking system for master degrees: 段 Dan
初段 Shodan, 二段 Nidan, 三 段 Sandan, 四段 Yondan, 五 段 Godan, 六段 Rokudan, 七段 Nanadan, 八段 Hachidan
In some kata lists and graduation levels, the term initial level (shodan) is often used instead of the term first level (ichidan) .
Waza 技 techniques
The techniques are differentiated according to the "body part" and the type of execution. The addition Mae means performing the technique forward, Yoko to the side, Ushiro to the back, Ura in the opposite direction. Keage means bottom-up execution, while Kekomi means straight-line execution.
The nomenclature is not completely identical in all styles and budo disciplines. For example, in Wadō-Ryū or Okinawa Karate and Judo, “Soto” and “Uchi” are used interchanged compared to Shotokan Karate, because Uchi and Soto denote relative locations, but not directions, i. H. whether Soto means "from the outside" or "to the outside" is subject to the convention of the respective Budo discipline and style. The styles also differ in the selection of the techniques taught and used in the katas ; not all of the techniques listed here appear in all styles.
Tachikata 立 ち 方 - postures
Shizen-Tai 自然 体 - basic postures
- Heisoku-Dachi 閉 足 立 ち - closed parallel position
- Musubi-Dachi 結 び 立 ち - closed heels
- Hachiji-Dachi 八字 立 ち - open foot position
- Uchi-Hachiji-Dachi 内 八字 立 ち - Position with twisted feet
- Heikō-Dachi 平行 立 ち - open parallel position
- Teiji-Dachi 丁字 立 ち - T-position
- Renoji-Dachi レ の 字 立 ち - L-position
Kumite Dachi 組 手 立 ち - fighting stances
Kamae 構 え - readiness, attitude
Kamae refers to the entire posture and mental attitude, but can also be used as an abbreviation for a certain posture in the appropriate context, e.g. B. for Chudan Kamae. Adding the suffix -te creates the command to take a certain posture, e.g. B. "Zenkutsu dachi, kamaete!"
Mi Gamae 身 構 え - physical readiness
- Maai 間 合 - distance
- Metsuke 目 付 け - look
- Hyōshi 拍子 - rhythm
- Kokyū 呼吸 - breathing
- Waza 技 - technique
Ki Gamae 気 構 え - mental readiness
- Kihaku 気 迫 - fighting spirit
- Sen 先 - initiative
- Yomi 読 み - perception
- Zanshin 残 心 - Presence of Mind
- Kikai 機会 - opportunity
- Kiai 気 合 - meeting of force. Thecry in karate is called kiai .
Kamae Kata 構 え 方 - readiness attitude
- Shizentai gamae 自然 体 構 え - natural readiness
- Yōi gamae 用意 構 え - concentrated readiness
- Rei gamae 礼 構 え - attitude of greeting
- Jiai gamae - Yin / Yang position
- Kankū gamae 観 空 構 え - beginning of the Kata Kanku-Dai
- Bassai gamae 抜 塞 構 え - beginning of the Kata Bassai Dai
Jōdan gamae 上 段 構 え
- Maebane gamae 前翅 構 え - " Winged hand position " gamae - Jōdan morote uchi uke
Chūdan gamae 中段 構 え
A common posture (including boxing) in which both fists are held slightly offset in front of the torso. This posture is suitable for attacks (e.g. zuki) and defensive actions with the arms at Jodan, Chudan and Gedan levels. The upper body is slightly twisted towards the opponent in order to benefit from greater range (e.g. Kizami-Zuki) or hip use (e.g. Gyaku-Zuki) when attacking and to minimize the hit area presented to the opponent. This arm position is often combined with the Zenkutsu-Dachi stand.
- Sagurite gamae 探 り 手 構 え - searching hand position
- Jūji gamae 十字 構 え - Cross-hand posture
- Chuken gamae - seductive position
- Ganseki gamae 岩石 構 え - unshakable attitude
- Chushu gamae - outstretched arm
- Tashin gamae 他 心 構 え - hands crossed on the side
- Shutō gamae 手 刀手 構 え - open hand position
- Kōkō gamae 虎口 構 え - "tiger mouth posture"
Gedan Gamae 下 段 構 え
- Jion gamae 慈恩 構 え - "Dragon position"
- Ensei gamae - crouch / arm outstretched
- Jigo gamae - kneeling on one leg
- Sochin gamae - crouch / outstretched foot
- Shoshin gamae - crouch on one foot
- Dead gamae - on one knee
- Muhen gamae - crouch / relaxed arms
- Manji gamae 卍 構 え - " Temple cross posture "
- Musō gamae 無 想 構 え - attitude of "non-attitude"
- Kōsa gamae 交叉 構 え - Chudan uke / Gedan barai
- Neko gamae 猫 構 え - "Cat pose "
- Jōge gamae 上下 構 え - high-low position
- Garyu gamae - reclined position
Ashi-Waza 足 技 - foot techniques
- Koshi / Chūsoku 中 足 - ball of the foot
- Sokutô 足 刀 - outer edge of the foot
- Sokutei 足底 - inner edge of the foot
- Sune す ね - shin
- Teisoku 底 足 - sole of the foot
- Kakato 踵 - heel
- Haisoku 背 足 / Ashi no ko - instep
- Tsumasaki 爪 先 - tiptoe
- Hiza 膝 - knee
Ashi-Sabaki 足 さ ば き (unsoku 運 足 ) - foot movements
- Mae-Ashi 前 足 - step forward
- Suri-Ashi 摺 足 - put on behind, in front in front (sliding step)
- Yori-Ashi 寄 り 足 - simultaneous sliding
- Tsugi-Ashi 次 足 - pull in front forwards, backwards
- Sashi-Ashi 差 し 足 - cross step
- Ashi-Fumikae 足踏 み 替 え - simultaneous leg change
- Tenkan-Ashi 転 換 足 - turning step
- Chakuchi 着 地 - lunge
Ashi-Barai 足 払 い - foot sweep
- Uchi-Ashi-Barai 内 足 払 い - Sweep from the inside out
- Soto-Ashi-Barai 外 足 払 い - Sweep from the outside in
- Ushiro-Ashi-Barai 後 足 払 い - Backward sweep
- Moro-Ashi-Barai 諸 足 払 い - two-legged foot sweep
Ashi-Basami 足 挟 み - foot scissors
- Kani-Basami 蟹 挟 み - crab claws
Ashi-Geri 足 蹴 り (Keri waza) - kicks
Zenpo-Geri 前方 蹴 り - Forward kicks
Mae-Geri 前 蹴 り -
kick forward Mae-Keage 前 蹴 上 げ - snapped
kick forward Mae-Kekomi 前 蹴 込 み - kicked forward
- Mawashi-Geri 回 し 蹴 り - semicircular kick
- Gyaku-Mawashi-Geri 逆 回 し 蹴 り - inverted semicircular kick
- Ura-Mawashi-Geri 裏 回 し 蹴 り - semicircular kick inwards
- Mikazuki-Geri 三 日月 蹴 り - crescent kick
- Ura-Mikazuki-Geri 裏 三 日月 蹴 り - reverse crescent kick
- Hiza-Geri 膝 蹴 り - knee kick
- Mawashi-Hiza-Geri 回 し 膝 蹴 り - Kneeling in a semi-circle
- Mae-Tobi-Geri 前 飛 び 蹴 り - jump kick forward
- Nidan-Geri 二段 蹴 り - Two-step kick
- Kakato-Geri 踵 蹴 り - Ax kick (heel kick)
Sokumen-Geri 側面 蹴 り - Sideways kicks
Yoko-Geri 横 蹴 り -
kickto the sideYoko Keage横 蹴 上 げ - snapped
kickto the sideYoko Kekomi横 蹴 込 み - kicked to the side
- Fumikiri 踏 み 切 り - cutting kick
- Fumikomi 踏 み 込 み - stamping kick
- Yoko-Tobi-Geri 横飛 び 蹴 り - Jump kick to the side
Koho geri 後方 蹴 り - kicks backwards
- Ushiro-Geri Kekomi 後 ろ 蹴 り 蹴 込 み - Kicked backwards
- Ushiro-Geri Keage 後 ろ 蹴 り 蹴 上 げ - Backward kick caught
- Ushiro-Mawashi-Geri 後 ろ 回 し 蹴 り - semicircle backwards
- Ushiro-Tobi-Geri 後 ろ 飛 び 蹴 り - Jump kick backwards
- Kansetsu-Geri 関節 蹴 り - Kick to the knee joint
- Kin-Geri 金 蹴 り - Kick to the testicle
- Kizami-Geri 刻 み 蹴 り - bounce, semicircular with front leg z. B. Mae ashi mawashi geri
Ude-Waza 腕 技 - arm techniques
Ken 拳 - fist
There are two types of closed fists in karate:
- bend all fingers in the middle joint until the fingertips touch the roots of the fingers. The thumb is placed over the index and middle fingers.
- like 1, but the fingertip of the index finger touches the base of the thumb instead of its own.
- Seiken 正 拳 - front of the fist. Used for punching fists and is therefore the most common type of fist in karate. Practically any part of the body can be hit with this hit area. The metacarpal bones of the index and middle fingers are the most stable in the metacarpal and form a straight extension of the arm. The ring finger and little finger have weaker bones, so hitting them on a hard spot can lead to a boxer's fracture.
- Uraken 裏 拳 - knuckles . This hit area is used when a snapping movement is performed as a punch from the bent elbow (this attack movement is also called Uraken). Predestined targets of such attacks are the face and temples or the sides of the torso.
- Tettsui / Kentsui 鉄 槌 / 拳 槌 - iron hammer . As with Uraken, the technique is performed from the elbow, but the bottom of the fist is hit as if it were a hammer.
- Ippon ken 一 本 拳 - index finger knuckle fist . When forming a fist, the middle joint of the index finger protrudes and the thumb presses the index finger against the fist to stabilize it. This fist is used when attacking the nose or ribs.
- Nihon ken 二 本 拳 - two-fingered fist
- Nakadaka (ippon) ken / 中 高 (一 本) 拳 - middle finger knuckle fist . Like Ippon ken, but with a protruding middle finger joint.
- Hiraken 平 拳 - Flat fist . The fingers are flexed at the middle joint without closing the fist. This fist is used against attacks below the nose or against the ribs.
- Ganken 岩 拳 - rock fist
Te 手 - hand
- Ippon Nukite 一 本 貫 手 - one finger stitch
- Nihon Nukite 二 本 貫 手 - two- finger stab . Nukite variant, in which only two fingers are struck; either with index and middle finger, or with thumb and index finger.
- Shihon Nukite 四 本 貫 手 - four- finger stitch
- Teishō / Shōtei 底 掌 / 掌 底 - wrist. The hand is bent upwards in the wrist. The hit zone is the ball of the hand in the area of the thumb. This hand position is used to attack the chin or bruise the attacker's arm.
- Seiryūtō 青 竜 刀 - Chinese broad sword
- Kokō 虎口 - tiger mouth (like grasping)
- Washide 鷲 手 - eagle hand
- Haitō 背 刀 - back of sword. Like Shuto, but hit with the edge of the hand between thumb and forefinger.
- Haishu 背 手 - back of the hand. The entire (middle) back of the hand serves as a hit area. Used for defense or against torso sides or solar plexus.
- Nukite 貫 手 - spear hand. The tips of the first three fingers lie in almost one plane, for which the middle finger is slightly curved. This can attack the solar plexus, between the eyes or the armpit.
- Shutō 手 刀 - sword hand. The outstretched hand is stiffened and the edge of the hand below the little finger serves as a hit surface. Used against temples, neck and ribs.
- Kumade 熊 手 - bear paw
- Keitō 鶏 冠 - cockscomb
- Kakutō / Koken 鶴 頭 / 孤 拳 - crane head
- Gaiwan 外 腕 - outside of the arm
- Haiwan 背 腕 - back of the arm
- Naiwan 内 腕 - inside arm
- Shuwan 手腕 - underside of the arm
- Empi 猿臂 / Hiji 肘 - elbow
Tsuki waza 突 き 技 - pushing techniques
Versions of the Zuki
- Jun-Zuki 順 突 き / Oizuki 追 い 突 き - equal-sided punch (punch on the same side as the front foot)
- Gyaku-Zuki 逆 突 き - reverse strike (punch with the hand on the other side than the front foot)
- Choku-Zuki 直 突 き - straight push while standing (from Heikō-Dachi / Kiba-Dachi / Shiko-Dachi )
Forms of the zuki
- Oi-Zuki 追 い 突 き - equilateral thrust. A punch from the side of the body with a straight upper body, from which the leg is also in front (after taking a step, often Zenkutsu Dachi). The hit area is Seiken. The starting position is the side of the body / hip with the fist raised. The fist moves in a straight line to the target and performs a screwing motion shortly before it hits. The other arm performs a hikite movement at the same time (same movement backwards).
- Nagashi-Zuki 流 し 突 き - evasive blow
- Kizami-Zuki 刻 み 突 き - bounce. Foot thrust from the front of the body, long range by twisting the body.
- Ren-Zuki 連 突 き - left-right / right-left push (Jōdan / Chūdan). A series of two zukis in short distance, walking on one step.
- Dan-Zuki 段 突 き - double thrust
- Sanbon-Zuki 三 本 突 き - left-right-left / right-left-right push (Jōdan / Chūdan / Chūdan). A series of three Zukis, walking on one step. There is a shorter pause between the second and third zuki than after the first zuki.
- Age-Zuki 上 げ 突 き - rising shock. Executed like Oi-Zuki, but with the fist also raised on the way. Hit area z. B. Uraken against the chin.
- Ura-Zuki 裏 突 き - Uppercut
- Tate-Zuki 立 て 突 き - vertical fist
- Morote-Zuki 双手 突 き - two-handed
- Awase-Zuki 合 せ 突 き - vertical
- Yama-Zuki 山 突 き - mountain push
- Heikō-Zuki 平行 突 き - parallel strike
- Hasami-Zuki は さ み 突 き - scissor thrust
- Mawashi-Zuki 回 し 突 き - semicircular joint. A fist swing that is carried out from the shoulder.
- Kagi-Zuki 鉤 突 き - hook kick. The Zuki is led past the upper body with his arm bent. Frequent stalls are Kiba Dachi or Kokutsu Dachi.
- Furi-Zuki 振 り 突 き - Sweep
Uchi waza 打 ち 技 - striking techniques
Kobushi-Uchi 拳打 - punches
- Uraken-Uchi 裏 拳打 - punch back
- Tettsui (Kentsui) -Uchi 鉄 槌 打 - hammer fist blow : Here you hit the bottom of the closed fist on the body (e.g. head or shoulder) of the opponent in a downward movement.
Hiji-Uchi 肘 打 - Elbow Strikes
- Empi-Uchi 猿臂 打 ち ( Hiji-Ate 肘 当 て ) - Elbow strike. The elbow is bent with a fist on the chest or shoulder and the blow is performed by a circular motion with the elbow. Use at very short distances.
Kaishō-Uchi 開 掌 打 ち - Strikes with the open hand
- Shutō-Uchi 手 刀 打 ち - sword handshake . Execution of the edge of the hand, which is usually brought out next to the cheek. The forearm is rotated shortly before impact. The other hand performs a straight hikite movement at the same time.
- Haitō-Uchi 背 刀 打 ち - palm edge strike . Execution of a blow to the edge of the hand that is taken out Chudan or Gedan. The forearm is rotated shortly before impact.
- Haishu-Uchi 背 手 打 ち - backhand slap
- Teishō (Shōtei) -Uchi 底 掌 打 ち - carpal stroke
- Morote-Uchi 双手 打 ち - two-handed blow
Uke-Waza 受 け 技 - Defense techniques
Wan (Ude) 腕 - arm (forearm)
- Haiwan 背 腕 - upper surface of the forearm
- Shuwan 手腕 - lower surface of the forearm
- Gaiwan 外 腕 - outside of the arm
- Naiwan 内 腕 - inside arm
- Te 手 - hand
- Jōhō (Age) -Uke 上方 受 け - from bottom to top
- Otoshi-Uke 落 し 受 け - from top to bottom
- Naihō (Soto) -Uke 内 方 受 け - from the inside out
- Gaihō (Uchi) -Uke 外方 受 け - from outside to inside
- Nagashi-Uke 流 し 受 け - Defense against sweeping
- Osae-Uke 抑 え 受 け - Press defense
- Hineri-Uke 捻 り 受 け - turning defense
- Fumikomi-Uke 踏 み 込 み 受 け - Entering with defense
- Suri-Uke 擦 り 受 け - Defense with sliding elbows
- Morote-Uke 双手 受 け - two-handed defense
- Awase-Uke 合 せ 受 け - assisted defense
- Sukui-Uke す く い 受 け - Shovel defense
- Tsukami-uke 掴 み 受 け - grip defense
- Kakiwake-uke 掻 き 分 け 受 け - wedge defense
- Soto-Uke 外 受 け - from the outside in
- Uchi-Uke 内 受 け - from the inside out
Defense impact areas - basic positions
- Haishu-Uke 背 手 受 け - defense against the back of the hand
- Haitō-Uke 背 刀 受 け - defense against the edge of the hand
- Kakutō (Koken) -Uke 鶴 頭 受 け - curved hand, wrist, back of the hand
- Keitō (Keiko) -Uke 鶏 頭 受 け - Hahnenkamm (thumb joint)
- Seiryutō-Uke 青 竜 刀 受 け - Ox jaw hand
- Teishō-uke 底 掌 受 け - ball of the hand
- Wan-Uke 腕 受 け - forearm defense
Sekiwan-Uke 隻 腕 受 け - forms of defense with one hand
- Jōdan Age-Uke 上 段 上 げ 受 け - increasing defense. The defensive arm is pulled up from the side of the body in an inclined, rising movement to the forehead and rotates shortly before the end of the execution. The defending hand is clenched into a fist, the hikite hand starts open at forehead level and is withdrawn at the same time so that both arms briefly cross in front of the chin and then clenched into a fist. Attacks against the head are thus derived.
- Haiwan-Nagashi-Uke 背 腕 流 し 受 け - Defense against sweeping with the arm
- Te-Nagashi-Uke 手 流 し 受 け - Defense against sweeping with the hand
- Shutō-uke 手 刀 受 け - defense against the edge of the hand (Tate shutō uke - vertical hand)
- Te-Osae-Uke 手 抑 え 受 け - Defense against the press with the hand
- Ude-Osae-Uke 腕 抑 え 受 け - Defense against the press with the arm
- Tekubi-Kake-Uke 手 首 掛 け 受 け - wrist defense
- Gedan-Barai 下 段 払 い - Defense against sweeping down with forearm. The defending hand starts clenched into a fist at the level of the opposite cheek, the hikite arm is extended downwards. As the hikite arm is withdrawn, the defending arm falls down until it reaches the side of the body in an extended position.
- Kake-Uke 掛 け 受 け - defense against hooks
- Sukui-Uke 掬 い 受 け - Shovel defense
Ryōwan Uke 両 腕 受 け - two-handed defense
- Morote-Uke 諸 手 受 け - two-handed defense. Like Uchi-Uke, with the fist of the other arm held over the elbow joint for support.
- Jūji-Uke 十字 受 け - Defense of the Cross. Both arms cross in front of the body. If Jodan or Gedan is performed, e.g. B. to prevent the execution of a kick. Can be performed with open or closed hands.
- Sokumen-Awase-Uke 側面 受 け - Defense with both hands
- Kakiwake-uke 掻 き 分 け 受 け - wedge defense
- Kōsa-Uke 交差 受 け - both arms crossed
- Haiwan-Uke 背 腕 方 受 - Defense with the tops of the forearms
- Empi-Uke 猿臂 受 け - Elbow defense
- Hiki-Te 引 手 - withdrawal movement of the fist towards the hip. Used as a countermovement in almost every technique. Possible reasons: to evenly build up body tension and rotation, to generate a higher impulse, to be able to perform a new technique directly after each technique, to attack an opponent in the back at the same time, to have better balance, etc. a. In addition, the backward movement can often be used at the same time as a further defense or attack.
The greeting ritual is used to initiate the training formally, to forget everything that is distracting and to express mutual respect and subordinate it to dojo etiquette.
Details may vary depending on the dōjō, trainer and style, but mostly the karateka form an ascending row towards the trainer (s) and possible guests of honor. Karateka without a suit or belt line up at the low end. The trainer then orders to take the seated position (traditionally graduation one after the other). Then the meditation takes place (initiated and ended by the sensei or senpai). The greeting ritual then ends with at least one greeting (usually Sensei ni Rei or Senpai ni Rei). Additional greetings e.g. B. to guests of honor or the ancestors are pronounced before. The greeting is executed as a bow (can basically be done while standing or sitting).
The greeting ritual also takes place in this form as a closing ritual.
- Seiza 正 座 - knee seat. You sit on your knees with your feet under your buttocks and your hands on your thighs. The posture is upright and relaxed. In this position one meditates and then greets.
- Mokusō 黙 想 - meditation
- Mokusō Yame 黙 想 止 め - End of meditation
- Shōmen ni Rei 正面 に 礼 - greeting to the front (of the dōjō ; greeting to the ancestors)
- Sensei ni Rei 先生 に 礼 - Greetings to the master. This invitation is made by the oldest student, never by the sensei himself (this would be an immodest invitation to greet him).
- Senpai ni Rei 先輩 に 礼 - greeting to the advanced. Analogous to Sensei ni Rei, with a Senpai taking on his role as a trainer.
- Otagai ni Rei お 互 い に 礼 - Mutual greeting, possibly only pronounced as Rei.
- Ossu 押 忍 - (greeting or confirmation). Used when greeting a person while bowing (or also in Kihon Ippon Kumite when Tori's announcement). Not used in kata.
- Kiritsu 起立 - getting up
- Yōi 用意 - readiness. A natural, balanced stance is taken. The arms are hung with fists in front of the hips. The karateka is attentive. When performing kata, depending on the kata, a more specific yoi command may be given by the trainer in order to take a special yoi position in the kata, e.g. B. Tekki Yoi (stretched, clasped hands with closed legs), Bassai Yoi (wrapping a fist with the other hand), ...
- Kamaete 構 え て - take up position. The position is mentioned beforehand, e.g. B. "Left in front with Gedan-Barai in Zenkutsu Dachi, kamaete"
- Hajime 初 め - start. Start command for fights or tasks given by the trainer until the end of the bid with Yame.
- Yame 止 め - Quit
- Mawatte 回 っ て - turn around
- Narande 並 ん で - Place in a row
- Naore 直 れ - Ready / Ready
- Hantai 反 対 - Other direction / the other way around
- Seiretsu整 列 - constellation
Kumite 組 手
- Kyo 虚 - Kyo means the chance to hit a gap (suki) in the opponent. There are two types of kyo: physical kyo and mental kyo. To create a Kyo, techniques of Go no Sen or Sen no Sen are used.
- Kuzushi 崩 し - disturbing the balance
- Sun-Dome 寸 止 め - Stopping an attack just before the opponent's body
- Tori and Uke - designation for the attacker and defender
- Karate glossary . Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- Terminology with graphic processing of related terms . Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- Basic Karate stances (Basic Karate positions) ( ren ) Retrieved on March 15, 2017th