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system series step ≈ age ( mya )
higher higher higher younger
Perm Lopingium Changhsingium 251.9

Wuchiapingium 254.2

Guadalupium Capitanium 259.9

Wordium 265.1

Roadium 268.8

Cisuralium Kungurium 272.3

Artinskium 279.3

Sacmarium 290.1

Asselium 295.5

deeper deeper deeper older

The Lopingium (also Oberperm or Upper Perm , in German usage also shortened to Loping) is the most recent chronostratigraphic series or geochronological epoch of the Permian in geological history . It began about 259.9 million years ago and ended about 251.9 million years ago. The Guadalupium series (Middle Perm) is ahead of it . This is followed by the Lower Triassic series.


The series is named after the city of Leping ( 乐平 ) in Jiangxi Province in southern China , to be precise after an older transcription for it. The name was introduced into literature by Ferdinand von Richthofen in 1883 as the "Loping Coal-bearing Series". However, he originally referred to a lithostratigraphic unit. Amadeus William Grabau , the pioneer of Chinese stratigraphy, adopted the term as the "Loping Series". It was later defined as a chronostratigraphic series by a group of authors around Jin Yugan .

Definition and GSSP

The basis of the Lopingium series (and the Wuchiapingium stage) defines the first appearance of the conodont subspecies Clarkina postbitteri postbitteri . The series ends with the first appearance of the conodont species Hindeodus parvus and the end of the negative carbon anomaly after the peak of the Upper Permian mass extinction. The Lopingium (and Wuchiapingium) GSSP is the Penglaitan Profile along the Hongshui River, approximately 20 km east of the county town of Laibin in the Guangxi Autonomous Region in southern China.


The lopingium is divided into two geological levels :

Regionally, further stage names are used for subdivision. Other series names that were used earlier for the lopingium are: Tatarium and Dzhulfium . However, they do not have exactly the same limits or do not represent the entire Upper Permian. The Tatarium is defined in predominantly continental sediments and can be very poorly correlated with the lopingium defined in marine sediments. The Dzhulfium essentially corresponds only to the Wuchiapingium. After investigations on ammonites from the Amarassi Formation in Timor , Furnish added the amarassium between the end of the Guadalupian and the beginning of the Dzhulfian in 1973.

The Lopingium in Central Europe

In Central Europe, the uppermost parts of the Rotliegend and the entire Zechstein were deposited at the time of the Lopingium . The basal layers of the red sandstone are also dated to the uppermost lopingium. In the eastern Alps , the fluvial Alpine red sandstone was sedimented in the far west, but elsewhere the Präbichl Formation , the Mitterberg Formation and the Val Gardena Formation ( southern Alps ). The Verrucano and the Bellerophon Formation also fall during this period.


The beginning of loping was accompanied by a global regression , a drop in sea level. At the same time, there was a mass extinction that can be viewed as the first phase of the global extinction event at the end of the Permian.

This incision, with its geographical and ecological changes, created the possibility of radiation within various animal groups, which occurred quickly, but died out again towards the end of the Permian. These events led to the establishment of the Lopingium as a separate section of the Permian.

An example of such a radiation is the development of the Pareiasauridae , which produced a great variety of forms within two million years. They occupied the ecological niches that became vacant after the extinction of the large herbivores of the Caseidae family , which belong to the pelycosaurs .

Individual evidence

  1. 252.6 according to Brack et al. 2005
  2. Yugan Jin, Shuzhong Shen, Charles M. Henderson, Xiangdong Wang, Wei Wang, Yue Wang, Changqun Cao and Qinghua Shang: The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the boundary between the Capitanian and Wuchiapingian Stage (Permian). Episodes, 29 (4), p. 253, Beijing 2006 ISSN  0705-3797


  • Peter Brack, Hans Rieber, Alda Nicora and Roland Mundil: The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Ladinian Stage (Middle Triassic) at Bagolino (Southern Alps, Northern Italy) and its implications for the Triassic time scale. Episodes, 28 (4): 233-244, Beijing 2005 ISSN  0705-3797 .
  • Amadeus William Grabau: Stratigraphy of China, Part 1, Palaeozoic and older. 528 p., Geological Survery of China, Beijing 1923
  • Yugan Jin, Shuzhong Shen, Charles M. Henderson, Xiangdong Wang, Wei Wang, Yue Wang, Changqun Cao and Qinghua Shang: The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the boundary between the Capitanian and Wuchiapingian Stage (Permian). Episodes, 29 (4): 253-263, Beijing 2006 ISSN  0705-3797 .
  • Yugan Jin, SL Mei, W. Wang, Xiangdong Wang, SZ Shen, Qinghau Shang, and ZQ Chen: On the Lopingian Series of the Permian System. Palaeoworld, 9: 1-18, Nanjing 1998 ISSN  1871-174X
  • Yugan Jin, Qinghau Shang, Xiangdong Wang, Yue Wang and Jinzhang Sheng: Acta geologica sinica , Journal of the Geological Society of China, 73 (2): 1999
  • Yugan Jin, Bruce R. Wardlaw, Brian F. Glenister, and Galina V. Kotlyar: Permian chronostratigraphic subdivision. Episodes, 20 (1): 10-15, Beijing 1997 ISSN  0705-3797 .
  • Heinz Kozur: Late Permian Tethyan Conodonts from West Texas and their Significance for World-Wide Correlation of the Guadalupian-Dzhulfian Boundary. Geological-paleontological reports from the University of Innsbruck, 16, pp. 179–186, 1991 online (PDF; 936 kB)
  • Ferdinand Freiherr von Richthofen: China. Vol.4: Contributions to the paleontology of China: treatises. 288 pp., Berlin, Reimer 1883
  • Bruce R. Wardlaw, Vladimir I. Davydov and Felix Gradstein: The Permian Period. Pp. 249-270 In: Felix Gradstein, Jim Ogg & Alan Smith (Eds.): A Geologic timescale. Cambridge University Press 2004 ISBN 978-0-521-78673-7

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