Mat bean ( Vigna aconitifolia )
|( Jacq. ) Maréchal|
It is closely related to a number of other crops called " beans ", in particular the mung bean and the native bean . In the German-speaking area, the terms Mottenbohne and Mückenbohne are also used . The name goes back to the name of the plant in Hindi : मोठ moṭh (pronunciation: moːʈʰ ), and has nothing to do with mats or moths.
The mat bean is an upright to creeping herbaceous plant with heights of about 20 centimeters and 1 to 2 meters in diameter. The angular stems have stiff, yellow, spread out hairs (trichomes). The three-part foliage leaves have a 3.5 to 8.5 cm long, hairy stalk and 3.5 to 6.0 cm long leaflets . The lower and upper side of the leaflets are hairy. The stipules are 5 to 10 mm long.
The axillary, 1.5 to 6.0 cm long stalked, racemose inflorescences contain about 4.0 mm long, hairy bracts . The flower stalk is about 1 mm long. The hermaphrodite flowers are zygomorphic and five-fold. The approximately 2.5 mm long, sparsely hairy calyx ends in five approximately 1 mm long calyx teeth. The five petals are yellow. The flag is 4.5 to 5.0 mm long.
The legumes , about 3.5 to 6.5 centimeters long and 4 to 5 mm wide, are initially tomentose, but soon become bald; they usually contain five to seven, rarely up to eight seeds. The kidney-shaped or cylindrical seeds, up to 5 millimeters long and 3 millimeters thick, are often speckled with light brown, but can also have other colors.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 22.
The mat bean is very undemanding and tolerates drought very well, but needs a warm climate. It is therefore a suitable plant for cultivation in the Indian steppe areas. It can develop seeds even with very little water supply and its growth habit prevents soil erosion. It also tolerates a certain salinity and acidic or alkaline soils. This legume is usually grown in India without the use of fertilizers.
The possible uses are roughly the same as those of the primeval bean and the mung bean. One can use the fresh pods, the fresh beans, the raw seedlings and the dried beans. A flour that is used in Indian cuisine can also be obtained from the beans . The seeds contain approximately 22-24% protein, making them a good source of protein. The plant is also used as a forage plant.
The first publication as Phaseolus aconitifolius Jacquin was in the Obs. , 3: t.52, 1766. Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Maréchal has been her name since she was published by Maréchal in 1969 in Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belge , 39: 160 was placed in the genus Vigna . Another synonym is Dolichos dissectus Lam.
- SI Ali: Papilionaceae in the Flora of Pakistan : Vigna aconitifolia - Online
- Vigna aconitifolia at Tropicos.org. In: IPCN Chromosome Reports . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
- Brief info: Nutritional composition, processing, and utilization of horse gram and moth bean. , PMID 3899515