Mung beans ( Vigna radiata )
|( L. ) R. Wilczek|
The mung bean ( Vigna radiata ), and mung bean , Jerusalem bean or Lunjabohne called and also as mung dal or Mung Daal known is a species of the subfamily of the Pea family (Faboideae) within the family of legumes (Fabaceae or Leguminosae). In German-speaking countries, the seedlings are often incorrectly referred to as soybean sprouts . This useful plant is closely related to a number of other crops called “ beans ”, in particular to the ancient bean ( Vigna mungo ). The mung bean has been cultivated in India for several thousand years and is now widespread throughout Southeast Asia.
The mung bean is an annual herbaceous plant . It usually grows upright, mostly strongly branched, and reaches heights of 30 to 150 cm; there are also twisting and semi-creeping varieties. The stems are very hairy with brown, stiff, spreading hairs (trichomes). The alternate leaves usually have 5 to 21 mm long stems and three-part leaf blades. The 3 to 6 mm long stalked, usually broad-oval, simple or two- to three-lobed partial leaves are 5 to 16 cm long, 3 to 12 cm wide and have a distinct leaf tip. The partial leaves can be hairless or scaly hairy on both surfaces. The shield-shaped stipules are 10 to 18 mm long.
The axillary on 2.5 to 9.5 cm long stems, slightly branched inflorescences with few-flowered, racemose partial inflorescences ; overall one inflorescence is multi-flowered. The bracts are about 4 to 5 mm long and the bracts are 4 to 7 mm long.
The hermaphrodite flowers are zygomorphic . The five hairless, about 3 to 4 mm long sepals are fused with five about 1.5 to 4 mm long, hairy calyx teeth; the upper pair of sepals is almost completely fused. The five petals are mostly greenish to pale yellow. The flag is about 12 mm tall. The varieties can easily be kept pure as they are predominantly self-pollinating.
Usually only two legumes develop on a fruit cluster. The linear, cylindrical, rough and dark brown haired legumes are 4 to 10 cm long and about 0.5 cm in diameter. The ripe legumes turn dark brown to blackish. Each legume usually contains seven to twenty seeds, which are clearly visible on the outside of the pod. The seeds can be almost round and plump or cylindrically rounded; they are green, sometimes yellow or black in color. The seeds are yellow on the inside, which is a clear distinguishing feature from the primeval bean, which is white on the inside. The elongated umbilical spot is 1.5 × 0.5 mm in size and drawn in, but bulges in on itself. The thousand grain weight is 20 to 42 grams.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 22.
The mung beans are easier to digest than the common kidney beans in Central Europe and do not cause flatulence . However, they also have much less flavor of their own. You can use the bean sprouts , the fresh pods or the dried beans. Mung beans germinate easily. This property is used in many households to grow the seedlings themselves in special germination trays. Mung sprouts are often incorrectly referred to and traded as "soybean sprouts" or "soybean sprouts" because they are similar to those of soybeans . Mung bean sprouts are a classic wok vegetable, but they are also used in salad mixes. The Asian glass noodles are made from their flour . In India , the mung bean is a staple food and an important source of protein. It is made into dal and eaten as a snack . To do this, the dried beans are soaked in water , dried again and then fried in oil .
The ingredients of the mung bean differ only slightly from those of the primeval bean . The mung bean has a relatively high protein content of around 24% (of dry weight), which is considered valuable with its high lysine content. The sprouts, which can also be eaten raw, are low in calories and rich in fiber, vitamins and folic acid (59.6% carbohydrates , vitamins: A, B1, B2, niacin , C, E, minerals: lots of potassium and phosphorus, calcium, Iron, magnesium).
|100 g of dried mung beans contain on average:|
|1,146 kJ (274 kcal )||23 g||42 g||1 g||17 g|
|100 g of dried mung beans contain an average of minerals and vitamins:|
|sodium||potassium||Calcium||magnesium||phosphorus||iron||zinc||β-carotene||Vitamin E.||Vitamin B1||Vitamin B2||Vitamin B6||Folic acid||vitamin C|
|10 mg||170 mg||90 mg||165 mg||365 mg||6.8 mg||1.8 mg||35 µg||1.9 mg||0.49 mg||0.23 mg||0.30 mg||140 µg||3 mg|
It was first published as Phaseolus radiatus in Species Plantarum in 1753, and in 1725 by Carl von Linné . The currently valid name was given in 1954 by Rudolf Wilczek in Fl. Congo Belge , published 6, 386.
Vigna radiata belongs to the subgenus Ceratotropis in the genus Vigna .
There are three varieties:
- Vigna radiata var. Grandiflora (Prain) Niyomdham ( Syn. : Phaseolus sublobatus var. Grandiflora Prain (Basionym))
- Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek var. Radiata (Syn .: Phaseolus aureus Roxb. , Phaseolus radiatus L. (Basionym))
- Vigna radiata var. Sublobata (Roxb.) Verdc. (Syn .: Phaseolus setulosus Dalzell , Phaseolus sublobatus Roxb. (Basionym), Phaseolus trinervius Wight & Arn. , Vigna radiata var. Setulosa (Dalzell) Ohwi & H.Ohashi , Vigna sublobata (Roxb.) Bairig. Et al. )
- SI Ali: Papilionaceae in the Flora of Pakistan : Vigna radiata - Online
- Walter H. Schuster, Joachim Alkämper, Richard Marquard & Adolf Stählin: Legumes for grain use: Grain legumes of the world , Justus Liebig University Gießen, 1998 .: Joachim Alkämper: Information on the mung bean ( Vigna radiata ) (German)
- Vigna radiata at Tropicos.org. In: IPCN Chromosome Reports . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
- RM Nöcker: The big book of sprouts and germs - With many recipes , 5th edition, W. Heyne Verlag, Munich, pp. 154–157, ISBN 3-453-05422-9 .
- Helmut Heseker, Beate Heseker: The nutritional table, 2nd completely revised edition, Neuer Umschau Buchverlag, Neustadt ad Weinstraße 2012, p. 50.
- Vigna radiata in Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
- Leslie Watson: Papilionaceae in the Western Australian Flora , 2008: Vigna radiata - Online