Niederer Großteich Bärnsdorf

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Niederer Großteich Bärnsdorf
Lighthouse on the pier of the large pond near Moritzburg
Lighthouse on the pier of the large pond near Moritzburg
Tributaries: Promnitz
Drain: PromnitzGreat Röder
Larger places nearby: Radeburg
Lower large pond Bärnsdorf (Saxony)
Niederer Großteich Bärnsdorf
Coordinates 51 ° 10 '3 "  N , 13 ° 42' 49"  E Coordinates: 51 ° 10 '3 "  N , 13 ° 42' 49"  E
Data on the structure
Construction time: 16th century
Height of the barrier structure : 6.65 m
Height of the structure crown: 164.34  m
Crown length: 200 m
Crown width: approx. 10 m
Data on the reservoir
Water surface 37.5 ha
Storage space 0.48 million m³

The Niedere Großteich Bärnsdorf or Moritzburger Großteich is one of the Moritzburg ponds in Saxony .

Today the reservoir is used for recreation, fishing and nature conservation. As a special feature, it has a small harbor with a pier and a lighthouse . The Pheasant Castle is located on the western shore of the lake, not far from the harbor .

The Lößnitzgrundbahn , which connects Radebeul with Radeburg , runs south past the large pond . It has a stop at the reservoir.

The somewhat smaller Obere Großteich adjoins it to the southwest.


Large pond with pheasant castles , Dardanelles and replica warships, around 1790

The large pond was created in the 16th century as part of a large-scale pond construction program in Saxony. For example, the Dippelsdorf pond and the Lausa pond were created around the same time .

The erection of maritime structures near Moritzburg took place in honor of a historical event. At the beginning of July 1770, Russian ships led by Alexei Grigorjewitsch Orlow defeated the Ottoman fleet in the sea ​​battle of Çeşme in the eastern Aegean. One year after the end of the 5th Russo-Turkish War , Orlov, who was celebrated as a hero throughout Europe , met the Electress Amalie Auguste in the summer of 1775 during a stay in the Electorate of Saxony . Elector Friedrich August III. then received him in Dresden and on this occasion learned first hand details of the sea battle, which impressed him very much. His chamberlain, Camillo Marcolini , who, among other things, leased the pheasant garden near the Moritzburg hunting lodge and had a house built there for himself , therefore arranged for the elector to build a replica of a warship on the large pond near Bärnsdorf. The first electoral boat trip with the frigate took place in the summer of 1776. The court journal of September 10, 1776 gives the following information:

“At 6 o'clock in the morning after the mass had been heard, the electoral passages rose on both sides, along with the two most serene Princes Anton and Maximilian , accompanied by the Cammerfrl. v. East, Count Marcolini Chamberlain, Go. Rath Freyherr v. Thurn, Cammerherr and travel stableman Swinarskj, and Cammerherr v. Nauendorff, after Moritzburg, wherever according to the invitation that had taken place, yours, Prince Carl's, and Princess Maria Anna Durchl. Arrived, a pleasure ship built in the manner of a transport ship, with 2 masts and 1 arched spring, rested there one of their ponds nearby, and from which the highest gentlemen were welcomed with cannon shots on arrival, to climb and to see the interior of the same with high eyes ... "

- unknown : Court journal from September 10, 1776

In keeping with this, the elector has since then promoted the reconstruction of an entire coastal landscape in order to be able to recreate the battle of Çeşme. Among other things, he had a port facility built at the large pond with a representative, walled landing stage, stone bollards and a pier on which the Moritzburg lighthouse was built and cannons were set up. Several artificial islands were created in the lake; one carried a tea pavilion, another a small fortress.

A hundred meters long canal was created west of the pond. At its confluence lie the "Dardanelles" named after the strait of the same name between the Aegean Sea and the Marmara Sea . It is a 400 meter long, meanwhile dilapidated ensemble of artificial bastion-like curves with loopholes. On both sides of the mouth of the canal stood bridge piers with corner bastions in front, on which cannons were posted, the shots of which symbolically prevented the arriving ships from entering the canal. The bastions are symbolic miniature replicas of the fortifications of the original Dardanelle castles in today's Turkey .

From then on, sea ​​battles were re- enacted at the large pond for the amusement of the court , in which residents from the surrounding villages served as extras. On May 18, 1790, in front of a completed backdrop in a small shipyard on the south bank of the lake, a second warship costing 30,000 talers was launched, but it was hardly ever used. As part of a meeting of princes at which the Pillnitz Declaration was adopted, the last courtly sailing party on the large pond took place on August 28, 1791 in the presence of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm II . The coalition wars affected the area; the ships were destroyed and the facilities fell into disrepair. All that remained was a number of magnificent gondolas. The now Saxon royal family was very reluctant to organize larger outdoor celebrations.

Since 1910, a dam has divided the water into the Upper and Lower Large Ponds.


After the dam was divided in 1910, the water level in the Lower Large Pond was lowered by about one and a half meters so that the pond could be drained every year for the carp harvest. Because of the silting up of the shore zone afterwards, the landing stage at the harbor looks a bit out of place today. Gondola rides from the port with its pier, the bollards and the lighthouse have not been possible since then.

The restoration of the cultural landscape to the level of the 18th century was discussed by a panel of experts in 1999/2000. Because of the consequences for nature conservation and fishing operations, the idea was rejected. In addition, protective measures would then have been necessary for the Lößnitzgrundbahn, which runs along the southern bank of the large pond .

See also

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Margitta Coban-Hensel: The frigate on the Bärnsdorfer Großteich , in: Dresdner Latest News , September 5, 2005, p. 6