An orthosis (from ancient Greek ὀρϑός 'upright' analogous to prosthesis made up word in the sense of orthopedic prosthesis ), German splint , is a medical aid that is used to stabilize, relieve, immobilize, guide or correct limbs or the trunk and is used industrially or is manufactured by an orthopedic technician or orthopedic shoemaker on medical prescription.
Orthoses are classified according to their function and where they are used. There are orthoses for fixing z. B. in the case of defects in shape or deformations that are essentially irreversible. Orthoses are also used to correct misalignments, insofar as they are posture or positional errors that are reversible or where extensive or at least partial functional replacement can be achieved. These include flaccid paralysis , usually accompanied by muscular dystrophy , and functional leg length differences . The transition from an orthosis to a prosthesis can be fluid, as compensating for the difference in length is equivalent to replacing a missing part of a limb ( orthoprosthesis ).
In the case of sports injuries, orthoses are used to stabilize the joints (for example after cruciate ligament surgery ). Orthoses are also used in a variety of ways for the common diseases of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis and are recognized medical aids.
Irreversible changes are spastic paralysis or contractures in the joints . Insoles in shoes e.g. B. can have a function of reclination . That means with weakening z. B. the muscles in otherwise functional parts of the body an aid that is used to train and strengthen the muscle groups in question so that they can be fully functional again in the future.
There are also orthotics that are used to temporarily immobilize parts of the body. These include u. a. Neck braces , ankle , knee , wrist and finger orthoses . Others have the task of relieving stress, such as deposits, support apparatus and the like. a. for Perthes disease and other degenerative diseases and different types of corsets . Orthopedic corsets are known as trunk or back orthoses. A distinction is made between passive and active trunk orthoses. Passive trunk orthoses are so-called support corsets, which primarily have the task of relieving, supporting and bedding primarily in pain patients and patients with unstable spine. The active back orthoses are intended to actively correct the static statics of the spine z. Animate for example scoliosis , kyphosis , Scheuermann's disease , hyperlordosis and osteoporosis . This is most effective for directing growth in children and adolescents. But adults can also achieve improved posture and pain relief with spinal column problems with active trunk orthoses. Passive support corsets are more comfortable, but can weaken the back muscles and thus cause a certain degree of dependency. Some trunk orthoses are used to straighten ( extension ), straighten the spine ( reclination ) or to de-rotate it = derotation (e.g. derotating trunk orthosis according to Dr. Chêneau and Dr. Rigo against scoliosis). Orthoses are also used to immobilize the lower leg, for example after surgical treatment or during conservative treatment of an Achilles tendon rupture . With hard-shell models, special insert wedges are used to gradually reduce the initial equinus foot position.
The use of orthoses with a corrective function is mostly based on the application of the “three forces principle” (two main points of attachment and one pressure point acting in opposite directions). For example, with night splints for correcting deformities in the knee joint in small children, this is used because the growth the chances of correcting the deformity are the best.
- Activator (orthodontics)
- Arm support rail
- Pelvic ring orthosis
- Swiss lock
- Postman pillow
- Night splint
- Thomas rail
- Field transport rail
- Mainz orthosis
- Aluminum upholstery rail
- ↑ Wolfgang Miehle: Joint and spinal rheumatism. Eular Verlag, Basel 1987, ISBN 3-7177-0133-9 , pp. 116 and 175.
- ↑ Orthosis . lexikon-orthopaedie.com; Retrieved June 6, 2011