Oskar Heil

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Oskar Ernst Heil (born March 20, 1908 in Langwieden ; † May 15, 1994 in San Mateo ) was a German physicist and speaker developer .


Heil studied physics, chemistry, mathematics and music and received his doctorate in 1933 at the Georg-August University in Göttingen with a thesis on molecular spectroscopy . There he met the physicist Agnessa Arsenjewa (1901–1991) who had worked under Professor Dmitri Roschanski (1882–1936). In 1934 they married in Leningrad .

The couple traveled to the UK and worked with Ernest Rutherford at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. On March 2, 1934, Heil applied for a patent in which he proposed capacitive control electrodes on semiconductors. He was thus significantly involved in the development of the field effect transistor .

On a trip to Italy, the couple wrote the article in Bormio, “About a new method for generating short, undamped electromagnetic waves of great intensity”. In it, they described a new principle for generating vibrations, in which the vibration energy is extracted from an electron beam without the electrodes being hit by vibrating electrons. According to their calculation, up to 35% of the electron beam energy can be converted into vibration energy. It was published in 1935 in the Zeitschrift für Physik . In Germany and the USA, this work, which describes the basic principle of the klystron , received little attention at the time.

Heil returned to England on his own, where he worked for Standard Telephone and Cables and others until shortly before the outbreak of World War II . a. worked on the development of microwave tubes. After his return to Germany he worked in the transmitter tube laboratory of C. Lorenz AG in Berlin-Tempelhof on the development of a microwave generator that was later named after him. In 1947 he was invited to the USA. After scientific work and industrial activity, he founded his own company Heil Scientific Labs Inc in Belmont (California) in 1963 .

From his investigations into the fundamental characteristics of human hearing (and not the abstract theory of how a loudspeaker should work), he developed the basic principle of the Air Motion Transformer , which he patented in 1969. His invention was marketed as the "Heil-AMT" tweeter in hi-fi loudspeaker boxes by the US loudspeaker company ESS since the early 1970s . Based on this principle - since the expiry of patent protection - chassis have also been manufactured by other loudspeaker companies (ELAC, Mundorf, MBHO, ARES, BEYMA, ETON, Klangmeister-Ecouton, Adam Audio, Eve Audio).


The company Abacus Electronics has a loudspeaker as a tribute named Oskar Heil Oscara.


  • O. Heil, S. Vogel: Pulse heating of materials by highly concentrated electron beams . Defense Technical Information Center, 1962, OCLC 227278342 .
  • O. Heil: Tetrahedron Flow Beam Geometry for Microwave Tubes . Defense Technical Information Center, 1969, OCLC 227640471 .
  • O. Heil: Metallizing and Evaluation of Boron Nitride Microwave Windows . Defense Technical Information Center, 1969, OCLC 227655057 .


  • Herbert Döring: Oskar Heil in memory. In: Funkgeschichte. No. 100, 1995 pp. 15-16 ( PDF file , accessed August 12, 2010).
  • Herbert Döring: The Heil'sche Generator, a special klystron. In: frequency. 41, 1987, pp. 138-139.

Web links


  1. Bob Young: In Memoriam: Oskar Heil . In: J Audio Eng Soc. tape 42 , no. 12 , 1994 ( PDF ). PDF ( Memento of the original from October 12, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.aes.org
  2. Oskar Heil: Elimination and transfer of resonance series spectra into the band spectrum by adding gas . In: Journal of Physics . tape 74 , no. 1-2 , 1932, DNB  570308453 , p. 18-30 , doi : 10.1007 / BF01342577 .
  3. Agnes Arsenjewa: About the influence of X-ray light on the absorption spectrum of the alkali halide phosphors . In: Journal of Physics A Hadrons and Nuclei . tape 57 , no. 3 , 1929, pp. 163-172 , doi : 10.1007 / BF01339706 .
  4. MURI Book 1
  5. Patent GB439457 : Improvements in or relating to electrical amplifiers and other control arrangements and devices. Registered on March 2, 1934 , inventor: Oskar Heil.
  6. ^ Robert G. Arns: The other transistor: early history of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. In: Engineering Science and Education Journal. October 1998.
  7. A. Arsenjewa-Heil, O. Hell: A new method for generating short, undamped, electromagnetic waves of great intensity . In: Journal of Physics A Hadrons and Nuclei . tape 95 , no. 11 , 1935, pp. 752-762 , doi : 10.1007 / BF01331341 .
  8. ^ Radiomuseum.org: Oskar Heil in memory
  10. Patent US3636278 : Acoustic Transducer With A Diaphragm Forming A Plurality Of Adjacent Narrow Air Spaces Open Only At One Side With The Open Sides Of Adjacent Air Spaces Alternatingly Facing In Opposite Directions. Published on January 18, 1972 , inventor: Oskar Heil.
  11. Youtube
  12. manufacturer's website
  13. manufacturer's page 2