Predicate (quality)

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Predicates (from the Latin praedicare = to make known) are awarded in many areas for the fulfillment of (quality) requirements (see quality assurance ) that are specified or advertised by an organization.

Based on the rating, potential beneficiaries should be able to estimate the expected quality of a service or a product . Positive awards have an important advertising effect; therefore, a label is often used as a product label on the packaging or in a prominent place in advertising brochures. That is why there is an easily recognizable symbol for many predicates.

Depending on the issuing organization, the terms quality seal , quality seal , label, certificate or test seal are also used for distinctions .

Test seals, certificates, seals of approval, seals of quality

Demanded by the state

Test seals , test marks or test stamps, sometimes also quality marks, are usually prescribed or recommended by the state, as there is a state interest in the areas they monitor, e.g. B. because of endangering the public. Goods without a certification mark may then not be placed on the market.

The award is mostly based on international ( ISO ), European ( EN ) or national standards ( VDE , DIN etc.) and is carried out by state-recognized and accredited test centers. For the accreditation which is Association for Accreditation in charge.

Examples: TÜV stamp, DEKRA stamp, VDE mark

In the building materials sector, compliance with the manufacturing standards is confirmed by an independent testing institute. E.g. by BAM, Landesgewerbeanstalt Bayern and others.

Note: The CE marking is not a test seal, but a declaration of conformity . The manufacturer merely confirms in a legally binding manner that it has complied with all relevant European standards.

State, officially recognized

Here, too, there are predicates based on standards and regulations. Compliance with these regulations is a voluntary service, but some of it is rewarded by government agencies. EMAS-validated companies can more easily obtain approvals from authorities, and certification according to OHRIS or ISO 9001 increases the company's legal security by minimizing organizational liability. For this reason, the certificates are sometimes required in the private sector.

Examples: Quality management according to ISO 9001, environmental declaration according to EMAS , occupational safety management according to OHRIS or according to criteria set by the authorities, such as B. in tourism.

In addition, the award of grants can be linked to the fulfillment of certain requirements. The funding is then also a kind of state-recognized label.

Associations, clubs, institutions

In addition to the areas that are of state interest, there is a wide field of predicates that cover private-sector interests. Here private and semi-public institutions and bodies issue their own guidelines for awarding the distinctions. Compliance with the guidelines is monitored by test centers that must be recognized by the respective institutions.

Awards and miscellaneous

In addition to the official awards and prizes, individuals and companies also award prizes. Often these predicates are determined through votes and surveys, e.g. B. Book rating on Amazon or subscriber rating on EBay. These ratings serve exclusively private business interests. Nevertheless, they should also meet the four criteria mentioned above.

Predicates in tourism

In Germany there is a system of state-recognized ratings for better classification of tourist destinations:

There are similar ratings in many other countries.

In France, in addition to these, a label called the Pavilion Bleu d'Europe (European Blue Flag) is awarded to marinas , in which certain environmental management criteria are taken into account.

Further examples

Web links