Radio library

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Protest plate against the abolition of broadcasts and the dismissal of an editor (1981)

Radiothek (full title Five after Seven - Radiothek ) was a music journalistic and political youth broadcast by Westdeutscher Rundfunk Köln ( WDR ), which was broadcast on the radio program WDR 2 from December 30, 1973 to December 30, 1980 and achieved cult status among young listeners . It was a two-hour daily word-music broadcast, which at times achieved wide audience reach, mainly thanks to its music series. The radio library often took up explosive topics in its word sections. Her socially critical accents and the fact that she viewed her topics from the perspective of the young target group met with sharp criticism. After years of political controversy, the series was finally discontinued.

Shipment type

The radio library was one of the “target group programs for young people” that were included in their radio programs by all ARD broadcasters in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Other examples were the pop shop of the Südwestfunk , Point in the Süddeutscher Rundfunk , the ignition radio of the Bavarian radio and sf-beat in the Sender Freies Berlin . These programs were a result of the fact that the program makers on the radio now really focused on the target group of 14 to 29 year olds - who had previously only been neglected. Now, for the first time, this age group has been provided with programs on a daily basis over several hours and on retrievable broadcasting slots. In the broadest sense, the target group programs for young people from the 1970s are forerunners of the youth waves set up 20 years later, such as WDR 1Live or SWR DASDING .


Since February 29, 1968, WDR had broadcast the monthly youth program Panoptikum on the first radio program operated jointly with NDR : a 55-minute, lavishly produced collage of current pop music, short information articles on youth issues, political satire, social criticism, etc. was moderated by Rosemarie Pape, Hubert Maessen and Tom Schroeder , among others . The editor Gretel Rieber and the director Joachim Sonderhoff developed the concept . The editorial team, which works on a democratic basis, was headed by the head of WDR youth radio, Waltraud Blain (alias Waltraud Schmitz-Bunse).

In the early 1970s, however, it became clear to those in charge of the program that the younger audience was underserved with only one special program a month. At the same time, the WDR lost numerous mainly young listeners to the private program Radio Luxemburg . In 1972, therefore, planning began for a so-called youth track, which was to be part of the program every day from 19.05 to 21.00. Once again, Gretel Rieber and Joachim Sonderhoff played a key role in these considerations. The preparations were led by Waltraud Blain.

Appearance of the shipment

In contrast to the small-scale Panoptikum collage, the radio library was a formally conventional word-music broadcast.

On the majority of the days, the verbal program (also called “verbal contribution” by moderators and editors) ran between about 7:35 pm and 8:15 pm; an exception was Wednesday evening, when it was set between 8:30 p.m. and 9:00 p.m. On Saturdays it was broadcast in abbreviated form after 8:20 p.m. The rest of the broadcasting time fell to the music program.

The program was presented on most of the broadcast days by two moderators (so-called double moderation); One took over the music moderation, the other presented the word program. Most of the time, the word program was interrupted by a few interludes of music - in return, the music program often featured short event tips, which the word moderator gave.

Music in the radio library

The music program of the radio library had a particular stylistic focus on each weekday. As a rule, a certain music presenter sat at the microphone every weekday, who was also responsible for the music selection:

  • Mondays: mainstream pop; mostly moderated by Ulf Posé
  • Tuesdays: Soul; moderated mostly by David "Dave" Colman (often mistakenly written "Coleman")
  • Wednesdays: discotheque in the WDR ; moderated by Mal Sondock
  • Thursdays: Progressive Pop Music; mostly moderated by Winfried Trenkler
  • Fridays: Country, sometimes also oldies; moderates u. a. by Achim Graul, later by Roger Handt ("Questionmark - a quiz for pop music connoisseurs")
  • Saturdays: hit rally ; mostly moderated by Wolfgang Neumann
  • Sundays: Open Box - a slot that was filled with different formats, themes and musical accents.

Programs such as "Tucky" Trenkler's special about the Canterbury scene with Soft Machine, Caravan, Matching Mole and Hatfield & The North are legendary.

Excerpts from a recording by the Maynard Ferguson orchestra served as the musical opening and closing credits for the radio library : Nice'n'juicy .

Discotheque in the WDR and hit rally

These sections of the radio library achieved the greatest response from the public. The most popular edition with listeners was the disco in the WDR on Wednesday evening. Moderator Mal Sondock had already developed the concept in the 1960s. In 1974 it was integrated into the radio library. The core of the program was the weekly hit parade. When choosing the records that he presented, Sondock followed the procedure of British and US hit parades:

“That said, my criterion was very simple: Could it be a top ten hit? Yes or no? And then I played it and tested it. [...] I was particularly attentive to top stars who had just made a new recording. "

As an alternative charts offer the WDR Music Editors in 1973 conceived the hit rally : a program in which the rankings were not determined by pure sales success, but according to a set of regulations. Moderator Wolfgang Neumann explained the procedure in 1976: In the first step, the editorial team determined twelve international and twelve German music titles each week. In the second step, five listeners (who were recruited every month) selected seven titles. An eighth was chosen from the majority of these five. The eight so-called "new presentations" were thus established. Neumann continues: “From the 10 placed titles of the previous week, the records in positions 11–15, which were only alluded to, as well as the […] 8 new releases, the entire audience of the Schlager rallye will now select the 10 best records for the next week. "

The contributions from the radio library

Similar to the music, the word program for each weekday was given a thematic accent.

  • Monday: politics

Here it went z. For example, the youth associations of the political parties ( Young Socialists , Young Democrats , Young Union ), non-party youth associations, the consequences of the East-West relaxation for young people, the so-called radical decree , the world food problem, and contemporary issues from the Weimar Republic and National Socialist Germany, but also the founding of the Green Party .

  • Tuesday: the world of work

Here were z. B. deals with conflicting interests between young employees or trainees and their bosses, the activities of the trade unions and their youth representatives in the companies, the election of works councils and shop stewards, but also current spectacular labor disputes and, last but not least, the widespread youth unemployment.

  • Wednesday: private

This included u. a. Programs on the subjects of sexuality, the relationship between young people and their parents, partnership problems. It could also be about the difficulties of disabled people in society, about the disadvantage of immigrants and about the problems of various marginalized groups. These half-hour verbatim contributions ran predominantly as pre-produced (i.e. not moderated live) reports or radio features from 8.30 p.m. after the disco on WDR.

  • Thursday: culture in the broadest sense

Here it went z. B. about alternative cultural projects, independent theater or video groups, left-wing small publishers, but also about the burgeoning right-wing extremism, about initiatives for self-managed youth centers. Occasionally, social phenomena such as the rocker scene or the culture of the punks were also discussed.

  • Friday: educational topics

The place for topics such as: pressure to perform in school, pros and cons of comprehensive school and cooperative school , problems of young teachers and trainee teachers. Also z. For example: Problems of students at the mass university, grievances with university final exams. There were also tips for choosing a suitable apprenticeship. Finally, reports on alternative kindergarten and childcare projects, the children's shop movement, etc.

  • On Saturdays only short, pre-produced verbal contributions appeared in the context of the hit rally. There was the elaborately produced 12-part audio picture series History of Comics , which was later awarded a prize, and a similar series of Science Fiction . In addition, z. B. puzzles on contemporary historical topics interspersed, which could be solved by the listeners on the phone.
  • On Sundays, the word program was not designed according to a uniform pattern. In the late 1970s, there were special forms here, such as the radio call broadcast on the wire or the monthly radio library on the go .

Broadcast weeks

Irrespective of the daily topic accent, the Radiothek brought thematic focal points in so-called "broadcast weeks" at irregular intervals from May 1975 onwards. A topic was dealt with from different perspectives for up to seven days. In this form it was, among other things, about environmental protection and energy saving, about the so-called radical decree , about the terrorism of the “ Red Army Fraction ”, about the work of the trade unions, about the dangers of alcohol and drug consumption, about the problems of unskilled young workers or also about the political dimension of the Football World Cup 1978 in Argentina, ruled by a military junta.

Special formats: Radiothek am Draht and Radiothek on the move

Both formats were set up in 1979: for the Sunday open box broadcasting slot, where they usually appeared once a month.

  • Radiothek am Draht was a program with audience participation by telephone; A panel of moderators and guests in the studio answered the listeners' questions and opinions. The first broadcast of this kind in April 1979 dealt with the topic The First Time - Questions about Fears, Insecurities, Contraception . In other programs it was u. a. about lovesickness (May 1979), pocket money (August 1979) or asking questions and wanting to change something only brings trouble (October 1979).
  • Radiothek on the way was a public event, the core of which was a panel discussion. The event was held in various cities in North Rhine-Westphalia, preferably those that were away from the cultural or political centers. The first broadcast came from Lügde / Lippe on February 11, 1979; it dealt with the topic of leisure time problems for young people in rural areas . Later broadcasts appeared under titles such as young people discussing with young soldiers (from Rheine, April 8, 1979), housewife and mother (from Soest, May 13, 1979), youth in Europe of the regions (from Vlotho, June 10, 1979), environment (from the Bundesgartenschau Bonn, July 1979) or the integration of young foreigners (August 1979). The (rock / pop) musical framework was usually provided by professional and amateur bands. The radio library en route was recorded on site and then broadcast from the tape.

The editors and moderators of the word sections

Responsibility for the contributions was made by a specially established verbal editorial team - which was directly subordinate to the radio directorate until the winter of 1978/79. As an “integrated editorial team” it brought together editors from the fields of current politics, youth radio and culture. Permanent word editors were u. a. Helga Kirchner, Dietrich Backmann and Joachim Ulrich Lux, as well as Nora Schattauer, Lothar Fend and Jürgen Keimer, and at the beginning also Gretel Rieber. From the spring of 1974 Ulrich Teiner was the head of the editorial department. From 1978/79 the editorial team was integrated into the radio program area culture.

Nora Schattauer and Dietrich Backmann (mainly on Mondays), Wolfgang Schmitz (mainly on Tuesdays), Tom Schroeder and Jürgen Keimer (mostly on Thursdays), Helga Kirchner (mainly on Fridays), Lothar Fend (including Fridays) were frequently heard as moderators of the word sections. and Joachim Ulrich Lux (including on Sundays in the Open Box ).

Numerous word editors and authors at the Radiothek later made their mark as successful journalists: Editor-in-chief Ulrich Teiner became a feature editor at WDR; After the end of the radio library, editor Helga Kirchner moved to the political editorial office and in 2000 became its director and finally editor-in-chief of WDR radio; the u. a. Moderator Wolfgang Schmitz, who specializes in the subject areas of “apprentices and young employees”, rose to become radio director of WDR in 2007.

Orientation towards young listeners as a core idea

It was part of the self-image of a “target group broadcast” for young listeners at this time that the creators tried to look at the world from the perspective of their 14 to 29-year-old audience in their contributions. It meant:

  • 1. The program referred to the rights of young people, which, in the opinion of the editors and their staff, were insufficiently realized in everyday life. According to its own admission, the editorial team felt “obliged to bring about an educational process that includes awareness of democratic rights and behavior as well as criteria for understanding reality”.
  • 2. The editors let their young target group have their say. The verbal contributions worked largely with original tones , in which the young people affected commented on a topic. Your statements were in the foreground; adult actors had a much shorter or less time to speak.
  • 3. A content-related trait was also noticeable: In the radio library , topics that were considered relevant by socially critical, left-liberal actors were mainly discussed.

The range with the listeners

Investigations into the reach of the radio library in 1976 revealed that in North Rhine-Westphalia every second person between 14 and 29 years of age switched on the program several times a week.

The main reason for this is likely to have been the music tracks - especially Mal Sondock's discotheque on WDR . Surveys from this time also showed that a relatively large number of listeners also followed the word program of the radio library and only switched off the radio when the evening television program began at 8.15 p.m.

By the end of the decade, hearing behavior began to change. Reach research in the Cologne area revealed that WDR 2 lost a large number of listeners to Südwestfunk during the radio library broadcasting hours and especially at the beginning of the verbal contribution ( the youth program Pop-Shop was running on SWF 3 at the same time ). From the perspective of the WDR radio directorate, the broadcasting concept of the radio library was therefore up for grabs sooner or later.

Massive attacks against the broadcast

Because of its left-wing position, the radio library got caught in the crossfire early on. Critics accused the radio library of wanting to encourage young people to be rebellious and to convey a “caricature of reality” to them. They also collided with the fact that young people were articulating themselves naturally in the original tones. The newspaper Kölnische Rundschau called the Radiothek a “popular and hated youth program” ; other neutral observers spoke of a “torch among the youth programs”.

After just a few weeks, there were initial protests from listeners, employers' associations and political actors of the CDU / CSU against the contributions from the radio library . In the summer of 1974, the opponents of the broadcast initiated an observation project that contemporary media journalists described as "so far unique in the history of public service broadcasting in the Federal Republic".

A four-person commission from the program advisory board - a supervisory body of the WDR that was supposed to advise the artistic director on questions of program design - systematically examined the word program. Members of this commission were the editor-in-chief of the Neue Ruhr Zeitung Jens Feddersen , Peter Rinsche, Clemens Herbermann and the director of the Federal Agency for Civic Education , Horst Dahlhaus. For two months, the contributions were recorded verbatim on paper and evaluated by the commission.

Three out of four commission members - Feddersen, Rinsche and Herbermann - then criticized the unacceptable one-sidedness of many radio library articles. “Objectivity, fairness and journalistic precision” left a lot to be desired in their eyes.

Dahlhaus did not want to join his three colleagues. In a minority vote, he only recommended a “more positive attitude towards compromise” and a “broader presentation of the areas of conflict”.

WDR director Klaus von Bismarck and radio director Manfred Jenke largely agreed with Dahlhaus after the observation in the summer of 1975. They received criticism for this in the program advisory board and also in public. SPD member Feddersen and numerous other critics such as the CDU politician Heinrich Windelen accused the series of being a “Maothek”; Feddersen was also quoted with a statement to WDR television director Werner Höfer: "If you sell the radio library to the GDR, that's where it belongs." Höfer later denied that Feddersen had said that to him.

On the whole, the climate relaxed from 1975/76 - until the dispute flared up again in 1979. Radio library broadcasts on controversial topics such as the so-called radical decree, youth unemployment and protest poetry from alternative small publishers as well as a report on the political and cultural initiative Rock gegen Rechts enraged the critics. The conflict dragged on until 1980. The decisive factor was that two powerful advocates began to move away from the editorial team: Friedrich-Wilhelm von Sell , director of the WDR, who had been in office since 1976, and radio director Manfred Jenke.

The Radiothek word editors reacted to public and internal pressure at the turn of the year 1979/80 by collectively resigning their editorial responsibility. From then on, the senior program group leader Franz Greiner acted as the responsible editor. Jenke and von Sell came to an agreement in January 1980 that from now on the radiothek verbatim contributions should generally run as pure pre-productions without live moderation. For a few days in January 1980, the radio library was actually just a music show.

During these weeks the artistic director and radio director raised the fundamental question of the future of the radio library . Among other things, they were able to rely on the listeners' dwindling interest in the verbal contributions. From the point of view of Jenkes and von Sells, the 1980/1973 youth program no longer fit into the times.

The fans of the radio library

With the program, political actors from the younger social democratic spectrum (including the later Prime Minister of Schleswig-Holstein Heide Simonis and the member of the Bundestag Peter Conradi ) and the left-liberal spectrum (including the then free democrats Ingrid Matthäus-Maier and Günter Verheugen ) showed their solidarity : They held the radio valuable - as an opportunity to get into conversation with teenagers and young adults. Because: The younger generation of the late seventies can no longer be enthusiastic about conventional media offers.

Various basic initiatives were also committed to the radio library ; Information and discussion events were initiated in youth centers - on February 2, 1980, a few hundred Radiothek supporters demonstrated in Cologne for the receipt of the broadcast. The Duisburg songwriter Frank Baier contributed his radio library song to this demonstration :

Chaos on the autobahn - congestion in the city
Next to me a guy is rolling the window down: 'Guy, ey, what was that?
Also hate WDR 2, listen to the radio library?
I think there is a civil war, the verbal contribution is omitted. '

Radiothek in the WDR, the show is ours!
Dat means you and me and Pit from next door, Heidi Hinz and Uli Kunz.
And what we want to hear - what we have to say
doesn't have to be your taste for a long time, Mr. Intendant!
Remember that man!

The doorbell goes downstairs - Päule goes in circles -
Achim is on the phone: 'Man, do you know what that is called?
They cut our tongues out!
Hit us with scissors in the head!
The verbal contribution has to stay - there’s a lot of fun! ”

We want to keep 'Live' - because 'Live' means 'free word'.
Live with Wolfgang, Achim, Nora and Tom - in the studio and on site.
Enough tin is sent - veiled and camouflaged.
Radiothek once said, what matters is - so that there is 'all of it':

Dat has to bring some fun too - will you just grieve?
For your radio library in the WDR - don't be ashamed of yourself!
Take the sellers as they come - but you are being kidnapped.
Then also show ma 'what matters' - until they all have what is wrong!

Radiothek in the WDR…

When Huebner circumcises us - Sell us has a muzzle
and the hole simply tips the films - and freedom of broadcasting 'steers'!
The bosses are now dropping their pants - it's about her warm ass.
One blows to the election of the artistic director: 'Go in step! March, March! '

Here a song is mutilated - there you are stuffed up there '
Hübner cuts out entire stanzas, and' Fuck it, Marion S. '
He brings editors in - washes their brains
and acts like a conscience!
Heaven, ass and thread!

Radio library in the WDR ...

The decision against the radio library

At this time, however, the die was cast within the broadcasters; and in the spring of 1980, radio director Jenke made it clear at a press conference that the radio library should be closed on the occasion of the program reform planned for January 1981.

The reform probably brought a new, exclusively musical series of programs called Pop-Session between 8:05 p.m. and 9:00 p.m. , which also had a different focus every weekday. On the slot between 6:05 p.m. and 8:00 p.m., a dedicated radio library follow-up series was set up with the new program WDR Zwei zu Eins: Thema heute (in which Helga Kirchner and Ulrich Teiner, two former radio library editors, were also involved); However, this program was no longer specifically aimed at young people, but also at adults.

Some elements of the radio library continued beyond 1980: z. B. the Schlager rallye (Mondays as part of the new pop session ) and the word format listener make the program . The series Radiothek on the move also temporarily continued to exist on Sunday evenings in the WDR 1 program. From 1981 onwards, the disco in the WDR became Sondock's hit parade - with slightly reduced airtime (Wednesdays as part of the pop session ); But Sondock was later convinced that the new title of the show had boosted his, Sondocks, popularity.

The final broadcast and its consequences

For December 30, 1980 - the last day of broadcasting - the Radiothek editorial team organized the four and a half hour live special edition That was it - Radiothek . In front of around 1,500 spectators, an event announced as a “revue” was held in the Cologne-Mülheim city hall from 7:05 pm to 11:30 pm. With 20-minute contributions each were a. the cabaret artist Hanns Dieter Hüsch , the songwriters Frank Baier , Dieter Süverkrüp and Walter Mossmann , the cabaret groups Karl Napps Chaos Theater and Die 3 Tornados , the blues band Das third Ohr and the then hardly known Cologne rock group Wolfgang Niedeckens BAP .

The editors and their superiors were aware that a live broadcast of this revue carried risks: at least expressions of solidarity from radio library supporters were to be expected. As a way out, the WDR resorted to recording the dress rehearsal completely; During the broadcast, the recording ran off the tape in the broadcasting house so that it could be sent to the transmitter immediately in the event of a breakdown or unforeseen events (and the original broadcast from the hall).

However, this recording was of no help with the incidents that actually occurred: Walter Mossmann briefly expressed his solidarity with the radio library in his greeting , Frank Baier went even further: he violated an express ban by the WDR editors and read before the applauding audience the refrain of his radio library song . The actors of Karl Napps Chaos Theater agreed to “play at the funeral of the [WDR] director of Sell, if it takes place”.

The 3 Tornados caused the scandal of the evening with their skit Krippenspiel , a satire on the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Mother, which critics perceived as blasphemous : They made Joseph say: “That must be a beautiful Holy Spirit who has my fiancée behind my back back bangs. ”The sketch provoked massive protests from listeners. In addition, representatives of the Protestant and especially the Catholic Church protested.

The editor in charge of the final program, Joachim Ulrich Lux, was held responsible for the scandal because he had known Nativity Play since the dress rehearsal, but had not canceled the sketch. Lux was then dismissed without notice in February 1981. It was the first time that a WDR radio editor was fired because of a program he was responsible for. Editor-in-chief Ulrich Teiner and moderator Wolfgang Schmitz received warnings with threats of termination. Lux was only able to assert himself against the WDR in court in July 1981. The regional labor court of North Rhine-Westphalia made Lux jointly responsible for the incident as a second instance in its final judgment; but it also found that the higher hierarchies of the WDR had failed as control bodies.

Review of those involved and contemporary observers

The professional observers involved in the debate at the time - be they supporters or opponents of the radio library - today in their majority agree that it was a mistake to delete the series without offering the young target group a new, similarly extensive special offer on one Having made a regular broadcast slot. It was not until 15 years later that WDR again adequately served this target group with the full program EinsLive .


  • Hans Christian Schmidt: Radiothek. Conception, structure and objectives of a youth-specific word and music broadcast on radio . In the S. (Ed.): Music in the mass media, radio and television. Perspectives and materials . Mainz 1976, pp. 170-208.
  • Youth radio - pimples in the program face . Main topic in the journal Medium , 8th year, 1978, issue 10, pp. 1-16.
  • Nicole Vergin: Something for everyone: programs for target groups . In: Klaus Katz u. a. (Ed.): In tune with the times. 50 years of WDR. Vol. 2: The broadcaster: getting close worldwide 1956–1985 . Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-462-03581-9 , pp. 114–122.
  • Michael Kuhlmann: "Five past seven - Radiothek". The dispute over a youth broadcast on West German Broadcasting in Cologne from 1974 to 1980 . Kölner Wissenschaftsverlag, Cologne 2011, ISBN 978-3-937404-94-3 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. See Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 1–4, 20–22.
  2. On the history of the Radiothek : Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 22–28.
  3. On the appearance of the radio library : Kuhlmann (see literature), p. 41 f.
  4. On the main music topics of the Radiothek : Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 43–46.
  5. Contained on the LP MF Horn 3 , Columbia KC 32403.
  6. On discotheque in the WDR and Schlager rallye : Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 46–50.
  7. Quoted from Kuhlmann (see literature), p. 47.
  8. Quoted from Kuhlmann (see literature), p. 49.
  9. See Kuhlmann (see literature), p. 40.
  10. See Kuhlmann (see literature), p. 56 f.
  11. See Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 60–64.
  12. On editors and moderators of the word sections: Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 51–55.
  13. Quoted from Kuhlmann (see literature), p. 32.
  14. On the target group orientation of the Radiothek : Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 30–38.
  15. On contemporary listener research on the radio library : Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 174–177.
  16. Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 305–308.
  17. See Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 227-234.
  18. Ulrich Meyer, Farewell to the old trouble. WDR youth program “Radiothek” reported for the last time in: Kölnische Rundschau v. January 2, 1981. Quoted from Kuhlmann (see literature), p. 322.
  19. Schmidt (see literature), p. 171.
  20. Fernseh-Dienst 32/1975 of July 15, 1975, quoted in according to Kuhlmann (see literature), p. 234.
  21. On the debate about the study by the program advisory board: Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 234–247.
  22. "Maothek" in reference to the Chinese communist leader Mao Zedong
  23. ^ Trojan Carpet. , Der Spiegel 41/1975.
  24. See Kuhlmann (see literature), p. 246.
  25. On the development 1979/80: Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 289-300, 304-313.
  26. On the Radiothek supporters and their actions as a whole: Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 293–295, 300–303.
  27. Later included on Baier's LP Auf der Schwarzliste, plans 88349, cited hereafter.
  28. On the final phase of the Radiothek in 1980 and its follow-up programs: Kuhlmann (literature), p. 312 f.
  29. See Kuhlmann (see literature), p. 336.
  30. On the final broadcast of the Radiothek and the consequences: Kuhlmann (see literature), pp. 314–333.
  31. Cf. Now the discussion begins. The "Uli Lux" case and what it means to take on program responsibility. In: WDR-print. March 1, 1981, pp. 1-2.
  32. Blocks in there. , Der Spiegel 10/1981.
  33. On these assessments, see Kuhlmann (see literature), p. 342.