Shiny gold rose beetle ( Cetonia aurata )
|Leach , 1815|
The rose beetles (Cetoniinae) are a subfamily of the scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae). The subfamily is distributed worldwide, but has its main distribution center in the tropics. There are about 3000 species in about 400 genera known. The group's taxonomy is considered controversial. It is viewed by some authors as an independent family within the Scarabaeoidea , but Beutel & Leschen (2005) do not follow this view, but place it as a subfamily to the scarab beetles. In many species the adults are lively and / or have a metallic sheen. Unusually for beetles, they can unfold their second pair of wings to fly through an arch under the closed deck wings. The adults feed on leaking fluids, such as sap on tree wounds; in many cases also of soft-fleshed fruits. The larvae develop in detritus and have the shape of grubs typical of the superfamily .
The rose beetles include, for example, the Goliath beetles ( Goliathus ), the largest, but also most colorful species of the Scarabaeoidea. They are 8 to 110 millimeters long and have a slightly to severely flattened body shape. They range from dull browns and blacks to vivid, shiny, often colored with metallic or enamel-like colors in intricate patterns. The compound eyes are separated by a long, narrow canthus. The ommatidia are fully developed (eucon). Viewed from above, one can see the sensor deflections on the side of the front plate ( clypeus ). The antennae are ten-part and have a three-part antenna lobe that carries a specialized sensory apparatus. The mandibles are poorly developed and hidden by the frontal plate. The upper wings (elytres) are clearly indented post-humerally. The mesepimeron is protruding and can usually be seen at the base of the wing when viewed from above. The spiracles on the mesothorax are modified, the intersegmental areas are greatly reduced. The hips ( coxes ) of the front legs are conical downwards. An empodium is available. The apex of the rails ( tibia ) of the middle legs bears two adjoining spurs that are separated only by the basal segment of the metatarses . The tarsal claws are simple and of different sizes. The position of the spiracles on the abdomen varies; they are functional on the first to seventh abdomen segments. The pygidium is exposed. The propygidium is usually rigidly connected to the fifth visible sternite .
The galea and lacinia have grown together to form the mala. The mandibles have an anterior stridulation area. The body shape of the larvae is usually C-shaped, only when they move on their back when disturbed are they straight out. In some genera point eyes ( Ocelli ) are formed. The tormas of the epipharynx are not fused and asymmetrical.
Way of life
The adults feed almost exclusively by licking liquids, such as wounds on trees or fruits and nectar. However, some species also act as flower destroyers by grazing on delicate flower parts (stamens) . However, there are species within the Cremastocheilini that eat the brood and food supplies of social insects . A number of species have been detected in dung and also in termite nests. Most species are diurnal. The flight of the adult beetles is unique, during which the cover wings are not opened, but the second pair of wings (alae) underneath is unfolded through a recess behind the shoulder.
The larvae usually live freely in detritus or sludge and in wood that has become brittle and rich in protein due to fungal degradation. However, there are a few species that specialize in doing this. So they eat the detritus in ant burrows or nests of birds of prey. If the larvae are disturbed, they roll on their backs and move in worm-like, pulsating movements. Stiff dorsal bristles give them support as they move.
Taxonomy and systematics
The rose beetles are considered by some authors as an independent family within the Scarabaeoidea , Beutel & Leschen (2005) assume the rank of a subfamily that does not include the Valginae , which is regarded as an independent subfamily within the scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae). There it belongs to the clade of the Phytophaga. The relationships within the rose beetles are still unclear and controversial. For example, the position of the Valginae and Trichiinae either as independent subfamilies or as a tribe within the rose beetles is unclear.
According to this view, which, with the exception of the ranks of the sub-taxa, is essentially based on a classification by Krikken from 1984, the rose beetles are divided into two tribes with a total of 15 subtribes:
- Trichiini tribe
- Tribe Cetoniini
- Subtribus Cremastocheilina (about 50 genera; mainly Afrotropic, but also Nearctic and Neotropical)
- Subtribus Xiphoscelidina (about 15 genera; almost exclusively Afrotropis)
- Subtribus Stenotarsiina (about 50 genera; Madagascar)
- Subtribus Schizorhinina (more than 40 genera; almost exclusively Australia and Tasmania, but also Orientalis)
- Subtribus Goliathina (about 80 genera; Afrotropic, orientalis, Nearctic)
- Subtribus Cetoniina (mainly Orientalis and Afrotropic, but also Palearctic and Nearctic)
- Subtribus Gymnetina (about 30 genera; mainly Neotropic)
- Subtribus Diplognathina (about 20 genera, especially Afrotropic)
- Subtribus Phaedimina (5 genera; orientalis)
- Subtribus Taenioderina (more than 30 genera; Orientalis)
- Shiny gold rose beetle ( Cetonia aurata )
- Black rose beetle ( Oxythyrea funesta )
- Large rose chafer ( Protaetia aeruginosa )
- Similar rose chafer ( Protaetia affinis )
- Copper rose beetle ( Protaetia cuprea )
- Bronze green rose chafer ( Protaetia lugubris )
- Protaetia morio
- Hermit or Russian Beetle ( Osmoderma eremita )
- Green paw beetle ( Gnorimus nobilis )
- Mutable edible paw beetle ( Gnorimus variabilis )
- Banded brush beetle ( Trichius fasciatus )
- Tripple Beetle ( Valgus hemipterus )
- Shaggy rose chafer ( Tropinota hirta )
- Heterocnemis graeca
Non-European species (selection)
- African rose chafer ( Mecynorhina torquata ugandensis )
- Goliath beetle ( Goliathus spp. )
- South African fruit beetle ( Pachnoda sinuata )
- Eudicella tetraspilota
- Rolf G. Beutel, Richard AB Leschen: Handbuch der Zoologie - Coleoptera, Beetles, Volume 1: Morphology and Systematics (Archostemata, Adephaga, Myxophaga, Polyphaga partim) . 1st edition. de Gruyter , 2005, ISBN 3-11-017130-9 , p. 402 ff . (English).
- Rolf G. Beutel, Richard AB Leschen: Handbuch der Zoologie - Coleoptera, Beetles, Volume 1: Morphology and Systematics (Archostemata, Adephaga, Myxophaga, Polyphaga partim) . 1st edition. de Gruyter , 2005, ISBN 3-11-017130-9 (English).