Roskosmos ( Russian Роскосмос ) is the space agency of the Russian Federation . It is a state-owned company and emerged from the former space agency of the same name on January 1, 2016 by decree of President Putin . It is responsible for the civil space program of the country and is based in the so-called star city Svjosdny Gorodok near Moscow .
After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the predecessor of the same name was founded on February 25, 1992 as the state space agency . This agency took over the essential resources of the Soviet space flight and was in particular responsible for the civil space program of Russia. The authority's previous names were RKA (Rossijskoje Kosmitscheskoje Agentstwo), RAKA (Rossiiskoje Awiazionno-Kosmitscheskoje Agentstwo) and Rosaviakosmos .
The head of the Roscosmos authority has been Igor Komarow since January 2015 , who previously headed the United Missile and Space Corporation ( Russian: Объединенная ракетно-космическая корпорация , ORKK), which has been under construction since 2013 . After restructuring measures, in particular because of several false starts but also increased corruption in the construction of the new Wostochny Cosmodrome , the Roskosmos authority was dissolved on December 31, 2015 and, together with the ORKK, transferred to a state-owned company on January 1, 2016, retaining the name Roskosmos . In May 2018, former Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin succeeded Komarov.
In the times of the Soviet Union there was no central space organization. The developments took place in the so-called OKB . The best known example is the OKB-1 under the direction of Sergei Koroljow , which u. a. was responsible for the development of Sputnik 1 , but also for Yuri Gagarin's first space flight . At that time, important decisions were mainly made by the council of the heads of these design offices with the involvement of politics.
Roskosmos currently uses three space stations: the Plesetsk cosmodrome near Arkhangelsk in Russia , the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan , the former main base of Soviet space travel, and, since 2016, the Vostochny cosmodrome in the Amur Oblast in the far south-east of the country. For the use of Baikonur, fees must be paid to Kazakhstan on the basis of a lease agreement. As an alternative to Baikonur, the Svobodny Cosmodrome also served temporarily . A large number of rocket launches also took place from the Kapustin Yar launch complex on the Volga.
For a long time, the Russian space agency maintained the Mir space station , which, despite financial difficulties, was in operation for eight years longer than planned. It was finally abandoned on March 23, 2001, because one wanted to concentrate on the International Space Station (ISS). Russia is heavily involved in the ISS, for whose supply the Soyuz rocket with the Progress space transporter is used. From the end of the space shuttle program in July 2011 to the start of the Crew Dragon in May 2020, all manned feeder flights to the ISS with the Russian Soyuz spaceship will start from Baikonur.
Roskosmos is a full member of the standards organization Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS).
Space program 2006–2015
On July 14, 2005, the new space program for the years 2006 to 2015 was approved by the Russian government, but further financing options should be sought until September 1, 2005. The program envisaged investment of 305 billion rubles (EUR 9 billion) over these ten years, including 23 billion rubles (EUR 680 million) in 2006. This amount was around 25% higher than that foreseen for 2005 was. The ten-year plan envisaged a 6% annual increase in spending and an additional 130 billion rubles (€ 3.9 billion) in off-budget sources such as industry. The level of financing for Russian space travel was thus roughly on par with that of the Indian space agency ISRO . On October 22, 2005, the space program 2006-2015 was officially approved by the Russian government.
In the years from 2008 to 2010, the new space program primarily envisaged the completion of the satellite park with new communication, weather and earth observation satellites. In addition, the construction of new ISS modules, the Fobos Grunt Mars mission, the Venera D Venus mission, the Luna Glob moon mission and several scientific satellites were to be financed.
The modernization of Russian launch vehicles was also on the program: the final work on the Soyuz-2 and Angara missiles, concept studies on future developments (e.g. Soyuz-3 ) and a project to develop a reusable next-generation carrier on the Russia together with the European Space Agency (ESA) was interested ( Oryol program ). The Kliper program was also budgeted, the spaceship was supposed to complete its maiden flight in 2012 or 2013, but was discontinued after Roskosmos took over the manufacturer RKK Energija in July 2007. It is now to be replaced by the Federazija spacecraft , whose first manned flight is scheduled for 2024 . The development of the Rus-M launcher was given up in 2011 in favor of the Angara , but its introduction is only progressing slowly.
Since its foundation, Roscosmos has had the following leaders:
- Yuri Koptew (February 1992 to March 2004)
- Anatoly Perminov (March 2004 to April 2011)
- Vladimir Popovkin (April 2011 to October 2013)
- Oleg Ostapenko (October 2013 to January 2015)
- Igor Komarov (January 2015 to May 2018)
- Dmitri Rogozin (since May 2018)
- Official homepage of the Russian space agency (Russian and English)
- Russian space travel at russianspaceweb.com (English)
- Space News (Russian)
- Encyclopedia of Soviet-Russian Space Travel (Russian)
- Dossier on Roscosmos at Spiegel Online
- ↑ Russian space agency gets replaced by state corporation - Kremlin. TASS , December 28, 2015, accessed February 2, 2016 .
- ↑ Russian Space Follies. NASA Watch, December 30, 2015, accessed February 2, 2016 .
- ↑ Deputy PM Rogozin Says Russia Must Continue International Space Cooperation. Sputniknews , January 22, 2015, accessed on January 24, 2015 .
- ↑ New Roskosmos boss relies on joint manned programs with NASA. Sputniknews , January 22, 2015, accessed January 24, 2015 .
- ↑ a b c Gerhard Kowalski: Russia's space travel: With a new state company back to the top of the world. Spiegel online , January 24, 2015, accessed January 24, 2015 .
- ↑ Man Driving Diamond-encrusted Mercedes Caught Embezzling Cosmodrome Funds. NASA Watch, June 3, 2015, accessed February 2, 2016 .
- ↑ New boss and billions for Roscosmos. Neue Zürcher Zeitung, October 12, 2013, accessed on October 12, 2013 .
- ↑ Rogozin is Russia's new head of space travel