Tolbachik from the southwest
|location||Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia|
The volcano consists of two volcanic peaks , the flat and lower Ploski Tolbatschik in the east with an altitude of 3085 m and the steep Ostry Tolbachik with a height of 3682 m in the west. The former is a shield volcano , the latter is a stratovolcano .
Outbreaks are known from the years 1740, 1769, 1788–1790, 1793, 1904, 1931, 1939–1941 and 1954, among others.
Between July 6, 1975 and December 10, 1976, a particularly large eruption occurred at Ploski Tolbatschik, in which about two cubic kilometers of basaltic lava emerged from a system of fissures on the edge of the old volcano. This was the largest such eruption since the Icelandic volcano Lakagígar in the years 1783–1784 and four times more lava emerged than in the largest known eruption of Mauna Loa in Hawaii . A number of new cinder cones were formed to the northeast and southwest of the old volcano , from which the lava flowed. In August 1975 the summit of the Ploski Tolbatschik collapsed and a 1700 meter wide and 500 meter deep caldera was formed . The eruption could be precisely predicted by a series of earthquakes that began on June 27, 1975.
At the end of November 2012, the Tolbachik broke out again after a 36-year break. Fissures formed on the southern slope, from which lava flowed and ash was thrown up to three kilometers high into the air.
The fumaroles of the cinder cones of the great 2012/2013 eruption are rich mineral deposits. By April 2018, 101 previously unknown minerals had been found on the Tolbachik. A total of around 200 different minerals were documented. The Tolbatschik is one of the richest minerals in the world.
Southern slope of the Plosky Tolbachik volcano
Cinder cone Naboko
First cinder cone
The first cinder cone of the northern outbreak of the great fissure eruption of 2012/2013 is the type locality of the following minerals: Evdokimovit , Karpovit , Markhininit , Meniaylovit , Ponomarevit and Tolbachit .
Second cinder cone
A particularly large number of new minerals were found in the fumaroles of the second cinder cone of the northern eruption of the great fissure eruption of 2012/2013.
The fumarole Arsenatnaja (translated as “ arsenate fumarole”) is one of the most mineral-rich fumaroles on the Tolbachik with currently (2018) 57 documented minerals. 31 minerals have been described here first: Alumoedtollit , Anatolyit , Arsenowagnerit , Arsmirandit , Axelit , Badalovit , Calciojohillerit , Cesiodymit , Chubarovit , Cryptochalcit , Dioskouriit , Dmisokolovit , Dravertit , Edtollit , Eleomelanit , Ericlaxmanit , Kaliochalcit , Katiarsit , Kononovit , Kozyrevskit , Magnesiohatertit , Melanarsit , Pansnerit , Pharmazinkit , Popovit , Shchurovskyit , Shuvalovit , Vasilseverginit , Wulffit and Yurmarinit . The arsenate from the Berzeliit garnet group was also found here for the first time in a fumarole.
The mineral Chrysothallit was first in the fumarole Pjatno discovered ( "spot").
The fumarole Treschtschina ( "Column") is type locality of the mineral Vergasovait .
The mineral-rich fumarole Jadowitaja ( "toxic") is a type of locality of the following 16 Minerals: Avdoninit , Belousovit , Borisenkoit , Calciolangbeinit , Coparsit , Cupromolybdit , Kainotropit , Kaliochalcit , Kamchatkit , Nabokoit , Parawulffit , Philoxenit , Starovait , Steklit , Yaroshevskit and Zincobradaczekit .
In addition, the second cinder nor the type locality of the following other minerals: Allochalkoselit , Bradaczekit , Burnsit , Filatovit , Grigorievit , Krasheninnikovit , Leningradit , Nicksobolevit , Ozerovait , Parageorgbokiit , Vlodavetsit and Wrightit .
The fumarole Glawnoje ("main fumarole") of the southern eruption of the great fissure eruption of 2012/2013 is the type locality of the sodium-copper-selenium oxide Ilinskit .
Furthermore, at Tolbachik few other minerals were first described: Alarsit , Alumoklyuchevskit , Atlasovit , Averievit , Chlorartinit , Fedotovit , Georgbokiit , Hatertit , Ivsit , Klyuchevskit , Lammerit-β , Lesukit , Pauflerit , Piypit , Prewittit , Pseudolyonsit and Sofiit .
- Tolbachnik at summitpost.org, accessed on 24 January 2012 found.
- Tolbachnik the Global vulcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution, accessed on 24 January 2012 found.
- Article Tolbachik in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D111117~2a%3D~2b%3DTolbatschik
- DA Swanson: A Voluminous Eruption: The Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption. In: Science. 223, 1984, pp. 160-160, doi : 10.1126 / science.223.4632.160 .
- Vyacheslav M. Zobin: Introduction to Volcanic Seismology. 2nd edition, Elsevier, 2011, ISBN 978-0-444-56376-7 , p. 83 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Earthobservatory.nasa.gov , accessed December 4, 2012
- Tolbachik at mindat.org (English)
- Ploskiy Tolbachik at mindat.org (English)
- Naboko cinder cone at mindat.org (English)
- Northern fumarole field at mindat.org (English)
- Arsenatnaya fumarole at mindat.org (English)
- Arsenatnaya fumarole photo gallery at mindat.org (English)
- Glavnaya Tenoritovaya fumarole at mindat.org (English)
- Novaya fumarole at mindat.org (English)
- Pyatno fumarole at mindat.org (English)
- Treschina fumarole at mindat.org (English)
- Yadovitaya fumarole at mindat.org (English)
- Second cinder cone at mindat.org (English)
- Glavnoye fumarole at mindat.org (English)