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Tolbachik from the southwest

Tolbachik from the southwest

height 3682  m
location Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia
Coordinates 55 ° 49 ′ 51 ″  N , 160 ° 19 ′ 33 ″  E Coordinates: 55 ° 49 ′ 51 ″  N , 160 ° 19 ′ 33 ″  E
Tolbachik (Kamchatka Region)
Type Complex volcano
Last eruption 2012

The Tolbachik ( Russian Толбачик ) is a complex volcano on the Kamchatka -Halbinsel in the Far East of Russia .


The volcano consists of two volcanic peaks , the flat and lower Ploski Tolbatschik in the east with an altitude of 3085 m and the steep Ostry Tolbachik with a height of 3682 m in the west. The former is a shield volcano , the latter is a stratovolcano .


Outbreaks are known from the years 1740, 1769, 1788–1790, 1793, 1904, 1931, 1939–1941 and 1954, among others.

Between July 6, 1975 and December 10, 1976, a particularly large eruption occurred at Ploski Tolbatschik, in which about two cubic kilometers of basaltic lava emerged from a system of fissures on the edge of the old volcano. This was the largest such eruption since the Icelandic volcano Lakagígar in the years 1783–1784 and four times more lava emerged than in the largest known eruption of Mauna Loa in Hawaii . A number of new cinder cones were formed to the northeast and southwest of the old volcano , from which the lava flowed. In August 1975 the summit of the Ploski Tolbatschik collapsed and a 1700 meter wide and 500 meter deep caldera was formed . The eruption could be precisely predicted by a series of earthquakes that began on June 27, 1975.

At the end of November 2012, the Tolbachik broke out again after a 36-year break. Fissures formed on the southern slope, from which lava flowed and ash was thrown up to three kilometers high into the air.

Mineral finds

The fumaroles of the cinder cones of the great 2012/2013 eruption are rich mineral deposits. By April 2018, 101 previously unknown minerals had been found on the Tolbachik. A total of around 200 different minerals were documented. The Tolbatschik is one of the richest minerals in the world.

Southern slope of the Plosky Tolbachik volcano

Two minerals were discovered here: deltalumite and marinaite .

Cinder cone Naboko

The fumaroles of the cinder cone Naboko are the type locality of the following minerals: Bubnovaite , Hermannjahnite , Itelmenite and Saranchinaite

First cinder cone

The first cinder cone of the northern outbreak of the great fissure eruption of 2012/2013 is the type locality of the following minerals: Evdokimovit , Karpovit , Markhininit , Meniaylovit , Ponomarevit and Tolbachit .

The northern fumarole field on the first cinder cone is also the type locality of the following other minerals: cryobostryxite , flinteite , kalithallite and zincomenite

Second cinder cone

A particularly large number of new minerals were found in the fumaroles of the second cinder cone of the northern eruption of the great fissure eruption of 2012/2013.

The fumarole Arsenatnaja (translated as “ arsenate fumarole”) is one of the most mineral-rich fumaroles on the Tolbachik with currently (2018) 57 documented minerals. 31 minerals have been described here first: Alumoedtollit , Anatolyit , Arsenowagnerit , Arsmirandit , Axelit , Badalovit , Calciojohillerit , Cesiodymit , Chubarovit , Cryptochalcit , Dioskouriit , Dmisokolovit , Dravertit , Edtollit , Eleomelanit , Ericlaxmanit , Kaliochalcit , Katiarsit , Kononovit , Kozyrevskit , Magnesiohatertit , Melanarsit , Pansnerit , Pharmazinkit , Popovit , Shchurovskyit , Shuvalovit , Vasilseverginit , Wulffit and Yurmarinit . The arsenate from the Berzeliit garnet group was also found here for the first time in a fumarole.

The fumarole glawnaja tenoritowaja ("main tenorite fumarole") is a type locality of the following 6 minerals: feodosiyite , mellicincalite , metathénardite , puninite , romanorlovite and sanguit .

The fumarole Nowaja ("The New One") is a type locality of the two minerals chloromenite and urusovite .

The mineral Chrysothallit was first in the fumarole Pjatno discovered ( "spot").

The fumarole Treschtschina ( "Column") is type locality of the mineral Vergasovait .

The mineral-rich fumarole Jadowitaja ( "toxic") is a type of locality of the following 16 Minerals: Avdoninit , Belousovit , Borisenkoit , Calciolangbeinit , Coparsit , Cupromolybdit , Kainotropit , Kaliochalcit , Kamchatkit , Nabokoit , Parawulffit , Philoxenit , Starovait , Steklit , Yaroshevskit and Zincobradaczekit .

In addition, the second cinder nor the type locality of the following other minerals: Allochalkoselit , Bradaczekit , Burnsit , Filatovit , Grigorievit , Krasheninnikovit , Leningradit , Nicksobolevit , Ozerovait , Parageorgbokiit , Vlodavetsit and Wrightit .

Southern eruption

The fumarole Glawnoje ("main fumarole") of the southern eruption of the great fissure eruption of 2012/2013 is the type locality of the sodium-copper-selenium oxide Ilinskit .

Furthermore, at Tolbachik few other minerals were first described: Alarsit , Alumoklyuchevskit , Atlasovit , Averievit , Chlorartinit , Fedotovit , Georgbokiit , Hatertit , Ivsit , Klyuchevskit , Lammerit-β , Lesukit , Pauflerit , Piypit , Prewittit , Pseudolyonsit and Sofiit .

Picture gallery

Tolbachik Ostry (left) and Plosky (right) from the south-southwest
360 ° panorama from the 1975 eruption cone. The summit of Ostry Tolbachik can be found in the clouds on the right.
Tolbachik from the west

Web links

Commons : Tolbachik  - collection of images

Individual evidence

  1. Tolbachnik at, accessed on 24 January 2012 found.
  2. Tolbachnik the Global vulcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution, accessed on 24 January 2012 found.
  3. Article Tolbachik in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D111117~2a%3D~2b%3DTolbatschik
  4. DA Swanson: A Voluminous Eruption: The Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption. In: Science. 223, 1984, pp. 160-160, doi : 10.1126 / science.223.4632.160 .
  5. Vyacheslav M. Zobin: Introduction to Volcanic Seismology. 2nd edition, Elsevier, 2011, ISBN 978-0-444-56376-7 , p. 83 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
  6. ^ , accessed December 4, 2012
  7. a b Tolbachik at (English)
  8. Ploskiy Tolbachik at (English)
  9. Naboko cinder cone at (English)
  10. Northern fumarole field at (English)
  11. Arsenatnaya fumarole at (English)
  12. Arsenatnaya fumarole photo gallery at (English)
  13. Glavnaya Tenoritovaya fumarole at (English)
  14. Novaya fumarole at (English)
  15. Pyatno fumarole at (English)
  16. Treschina fumarole at (English)
  17. Yadovitaya fumarole at (English)
  18. Second cinder cone at (English)
  19. Glavnoye fumarole at (English)