- the nutrients offered a location ( ecology )
- the position of an organism or a group of organisms in the food web (“trophic levels”) or
- the nutrition of plants ( botany ).
In contrast , trophics in medicine is understood to be the nutritional or metabolic state of an organism or tissue.
Trophy (Ecology 1): Trophy levels
Trophy is the intensity of organic photoautotrophic production ( Waldemar Ohle 1952). The trophy of a biotope or an ecosystem is also an abiotic location factor that influences the development of different biocenoses (communities of plants and animals ) in the course of succession . The enrichment of a habitat with nutrients is called eutrophication . (See eutrophication , fertilization ).
- oligotrophic : low in nutrients
- mesotrophic : medium nutrient supply
- eutrophic : rich in nutrients
- polytrophic : very nutritious
- hypertrophic : extremely rich in nutrients
Trophy (Ecology 2): Trophy levels
The trophic level describes the position of living beings in the food web ( food chain ). In this way, ecosystems and their biocenoses can be divided into trophic levels. With each level the food becomes rarer and fluctuations have a more serious effect. Therefore, an ecosystem rarely consists of more than four levels. The trophy consists of the following levels:
- Primary producers ( autotroph = "self-feeding"); mostly plants .
- Primary consumers , herbivores : e.g. B. Cattle ( heterotrophic ).
- Secondary consumers: carnivores : e.g. B. Predators (heterotrophic).
- Tertiary consumers: carnivores: e.g. B. Predators (heterotrophic).
- Destructors : z. B. Bacteria and fungi (heterotrophic).
The actual structure is, however, more complex (networked), so that a species is usually not assigned a clear level assignment, especially for consumers and destructors. For example, herbivores usually involuntarily ingest a number of small animals and microorganisms. Also, carnivores usually do not distinguish between herbivores and carnivores when it comes to their prey.
In botany, “trophy” is also understood to mean the promotion of the tissue or organism of a plant due to its location.
- Rudolf Schubert , G. Wagner: Botanical dictionary. Plant names and botanical terms. 10th edition. UTB / Ulmer, 1991.