Viktor Amadeus I (Savoy)
Viktor Amadeus I (born May 8, 1587 in Turin , † October 7, 1637 in Vercelli ) was Duke of Savoy .
He was the second son of Charles Emanuel I of Savoy and his wife Catalina of Spain .
Viktor Amadeus succeeded his father on the throne of Savoy in 1630. He concluded the Peace of Cherasco with France, in which he achieved territorial gains, but was also forced to enter into an unequal alliance with the militarily superior France, whose satellite became Savoy. The dependence on France burdened him and also led to a falling out with his siblings Moritz , Margarete and Thomas , who became a general in Spanish service.
From 1632 Viktor Amadeus claimed the title of king. The House of Savoy was able to assert claims to the crown of Cyprus and Jerusalem, which, however, had long been annexed by the Ottoman Empire . Achieving international recognition of this claim became a central goal of Savoy's foreign policy until the Peace of Utrecht .
On February 10, 1619, he married Christine of France , daughter of Henry IV , in the Louvre . His father had arranged the marriage in order to conclude an alliance with France, but that shortly before his death due to the question of succession in Mantua ( Mantuan War of Succession ) was broken.
With Christine he had seven children:
- Luigi Amadeo (* 1622; † 1628), Prince of Savoy,
- Ludovica Cristina (* 1629; † 1692), Princess of Savoy and wife of Moritz of Savoy
- Franz Hyazinth (* 1632; † 1638), Duke of Savoy,
- Charles Emanuel II (* 1634; † 1675), Duke of Savoy,
- Violanta Margareta (November 15, 1635 - April 29, 1663) ⚭ 1660 Ranuccio II Farnese , Duke of Parma
- Caterina Beatrice (November 6, 1636 - August 26, 1637), Princess of Savoy, and
- Adelaide Henriette (* 1636; † 1676), Duchess of Bavaria.
After his unexpected death in 1637, Christina of France took over the guardianship of the brothers Franz Hyazinth and Karl Emanuel and thus the reign of Savoy-Piedmont. Their pro-France policy aroused the displeasure of their Habsburg-friendly brothers-in-law Moritz and Thomas , who wanted to take part in the reign. There was a four-year war of succession, which was also a proxy war between France (Christina of France) and the Habsburgs (Moritz, Thomas). The skillfully acting Christina of France emerged victorious from this conflict. The two brothers-in-law were included in middle positions in what continued to be a pro-France policy. To seal the peace treaty of 1642, the marriage between Moritz von Savoyen and the only fourteen year old Ludovica Cristina was agreed. In the event of the death of the ailing Karl Emanuel II , Moritz would have become a duke. The return to secular status was possible for Moritz of Savoy because he had not received church ordinations due to a dispensation from Pope Paul V when he was appointed cardinal.
- Oresko, Robert: The House of Savoy in search for a royal crown in the seventeenth century. In the S. u. a. (Ed.): Royal and republican sovereignty in early modern Europe. Essays in memory of Ragnhild Hatton. Cambridge 1997, pp. 272-350. ISBN 978-0-521-41910-9
|Karl Emanuel I.||
Duke of Savoy
|SURNAME||Viktor Amadeus I.|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Vittorio Amadeo I.|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Duke of Savoy, King of Cyprus and Jerusalem|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 8, 1587|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Turin|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 7, 1637|
|Place of death||Vercelli|