Aulos mode
The so-called Aulos modes are modal scales . Their relevance for the ancient Greek aulos is no longer represented today.
With the classical scales ( church scales etc.) the pitch intervals result from the chaining of fifths to a collection of equal intervals plus a remainder (whole tones and limma, see Pythagorean tuning ). In practice, this means that the frets on the neck of a guitar , or the holes in a flute, are closer together towards high notes. Possibly due to the ease of manufacture, another type of scales made up of different intervals that increase in height was in use in the early days of ancient Greece. The pitch between them resulted from making holes at equal intervals on the flute or dividing a string into pieces of equal length. You can find this mood z. B. with simple shepherd's flutes. This sound system is named after the aulos , an ancient wind instrument .
The idea of the aulosmodi was postulated in 1939 by Kathleen Schlesinger in her work The Greek Aulos (Methuen, London) and is based on her research on ancient Greek and Arabic music theory . It uses the Greek scale names, always indicates the corresponding tone center and rarely allows multiple intonations.
Generation of the scales
The string is divided into 16 to 32 equal parts. If the string is held at the first fret, this means with 16 divisions that the wavelength of the tone is 15/16 of the wavelength of the fundamental, which corresponds to a frequency ratio to the fundamental of 16/15 (one semitone ).
The 16th to 32nd overtone of the page, depending on the division , has a special meaning, it is called the witness tone . The witness tones each generate one of the scales ( modes ) shown below . They are named after planets or Greek deities.
To arrive at 8 tones per octave , the following two rules are used:
- For tones that use more than 16 frets, the tones with odd fret numbers are omitted.
- You can choose to omit the tone at which 14 or 15 of the frets still sound
example
If the string is divided into 20 frets (Mars mode), the following frets are used as tones for the scale:
0 | open string |
1 | is omitted because 19> 16 and 19 are odd) (rule 1) |
2 | 18 frets sound |
3 | is omitted because 17> 16 and 17 are odd) (rule 1) |
4th | 16 frets sound |
5 or 6 | Sound 15 or 14 frets (rule 2) |
7th | 13 frets sound |
8th | Sound 12 frets |
9 | 11 frets sound |
10 | 10 frets sound (octave) |
Frequency ratios
This results in scales with the following frequency ratios to the root note and the previous note:
Saturn mode / Hypodoric
16 divisions
The measurement is 1/1, the parameter 16/15.
to the keynote: | 1 | 16/15 or 8/7 | 16/13 | 4/3 | 16/11 | 8/5 | 16/9 | 2 | |||||||
to the predecessor: | 16/15 or 8/7 | 15/13 or 14/13 | 13/12 | 12/11 | 11/10 | 10/9 | 9/8 | ||||||||
In cents to the root note: | 0.0 | 111.7 or 231.2 | 359.5 | 498.0 | 648.7 | 813.7 | 996.1 | 1200.0 | |||||||
In cents to the predecessor: | 111.7 or 231.2 | 274.7 or 128.3 | 138.6 | 150.6 | 165.0 | 182.4 | 203.9 | ||||||||
Size of the leader's own quint in cents: | 648.7 | 702.0 or 636.6 | 636.6 | 702.0 | 663.0 or 782.5 | 745.8 | 702.0 |
Jupiter mode / Hypophrygian
18 divisions
The measurement is 9/8, the parameter 6/5.
to the keynote: | 1 | 9/8 | 6/5 or 9/7 | 18/13 | 3/2 | 18/11 | 9/5 | 2 | |||||||
to the predecessor: | 9/8 | 16/15 or 8/7 | 15/13 or 14/13 | 13/12 | 12/11 | 11/10 | 10/9 | ||||||||
In cents (music) to the root note: | 0.0 | 203.9 | 315.6 or 435.1 | 563.4 | 702.0 | 852.6 | 1017.6 | 1200.0 | |||||||
In cents (music) to the predecessor: | 203.9 | 111.7 or 231.2 | 247.7 or 128.3 | 138.6 | 150.6 | 165.0 | 182.4 |
Mars mode / Hypolydian
20 divisions
The Mese is 5/4; Schlesinger leaves the choice of parameters open.
to the keynote: | 1 | 10/9 | 5/4 | 4/3 or 10/7 | 20/13 | 5/3 | 20/11 | 2 | |||||||
to the predecessor: | 10/9 | 9/8 | 16/15 or 8/7 | 15/13 or 14/13 | 13/12 | 12/11 | 11/10 | ||||||||
In cents (music) to the root note: | 0.0 | 182.4 | 386.3 | 498.0 or 617.5 | 745.8 | 884.4 | 1035.0 | 1200.0 | |||||||
In cents (music) to the predecessor: | 182.4 | 203.9 | 111.7 or 231.2 | 274.7 or 128.3 | 138.6 | 150.6 | 165.0 |
Sun mode / Doric
22 divisions
The Mese is 8.11, which Paramese 7.11.
to the keynote: | 1 | 11/10 | 11/9 | 11/8 | 22/15 or 11/7 | 22/13 | 11/6 | 2 | |||||||
to the predecessor: | 11/10 | 10/9 | 9/8 | 5/3 or 8/7 | 15/13 or 14/13 | 13/12 | 12/11 | ||||||||
to the keynote: | 0.0 | 165.0 | 347.4 | 551.3 | 663.0 or 782.5 | 910.8 | 1049.4 | 1200.0 | |||||||
to the predecessor: | 165.0 | 182.0 | 203.9 | 111.7 or 231.2 | 274.8 or 128.3 | 138.6 | 150.6 |
Venus mode / Phrygian
24 divisions
The Mese is 3/2, the Lichanos 12/7.
to the keynote: | 1 | 12/11 | 6/5 | 4/3 | 3/2 | 8/5 or 12/7 | 24/13 | 2 | |||||||
to the predecessor: | 12/11 | 11/10 | 10/9 | 9/8 | 16/15 or 8/7 | 15/13 or 14/13 | 13/12 | ||||||||
to the keynote: | 0.0 | 150.6 | 315.6 | 498.0 | 702.0 | 813.7 or 933.1 | 1061.4 | 1200.0 | |||||||
to the predecessor: | 150.6 | 165.0 | 182.4 | 203.9 | 111.7 or 231.2 | 274.7 or 128.3 | 138.6 |
Mercury mode / Lydian
26 divisions
The Mese is 8.13, which Paramese 7.31.
to the keynote: | 1 | 13/12 | 13/11 | 13/10 | 13/9 | 13/8 | 26/15 or 13/7 | 2 | |||||||
to the predecessor: | 13/12 | 12/11 | 11/10 | 10/9 | 9/8 | 16/15 or 8/7 | 15/13 or 14/13 | ||||||||
In cents (music) to the root note: | 0.0 | 138.6 | 289.2 | 450.2 | 636.6 | 840.5 | 952.3 or 1071.7 | 1200.0 | |||||||
In cents (music) to the predecessor: | 138.6 | 150.6 | 165.0 | 182.4 | 2039 | 111.7 or 231.2 | 274.7 or 128.3 |
Moon mode / Myxolydian
28 divisions
The fair is 7/4.
to the keynote: | 1 | 14/13 | 7/6 | 14/11 | 7/5 | 14/9 | 7/4 | 2 | |||||||
to the predecessor: | 14/13 | 13/12 | 12/11 | 11/10 | 10/9 | 9/8 | 8/7 | ||||||||
to the keynote: | 0.0 | 128.3 | 266.9 | 417.5 | 582.5 | 764.9 | 968.8 | 1200.0 | |||||||
to the predecessor: | 128.3 | 138.6 | 150.6 | 165.0 | 182.4 | 203.9 | 231.2 |
Individual evidence
- ↑ Kathleen Schlesinger: The Greek Aulos: A Study of Its Mechanism and of Its Relation to the Modal System of Ancient Greek Music, Followed by a Survey of the Greek Harmoniai in Survival Or Rebirth in Folk-music . Methuen & Company, Limited, 1939 (Retrieved November 29, 2014).
- ↑ AR Meuss: Intervals, Scales, tone and the Concert Pitch C . Temple Lodge Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-1-902636-46-7 , pp. 27-36 (accessed November 29, 2014).