Avgustyn Ivanovich Voloschyn ( Ukrainian Авґустин Волошин , Czech Augustin Vološin ; born March 17, 1874 in Kelecsény, Mishhirja district ; † July 19, 1945 in Moscow ) was a Carpathian-Ukrainian politician , teacher and writer. For a few days in 1939 he was President of the independent Carpathian Ukraine.
Voloschyn was born on March 17, 1874 in Kelecsény (today Keletschyn / Келечин) in the Bereg County , Kingdom of Hungary and studied at the Ungvár School of Theology and the University of Budapest. He then became a Greek Catholic priest and from 1924 papal chamberlain. From 1903 to 1914 he was the editor of the magazine Nauka , the only Ukrainian magazine in the Kingdom of Hungary. From 1900 to 1917 he was a professor of mathematics at the teachers' college in Ungvár and in 1918 became chairman of the Sub-Carpathian National Council, which in 1919 asked Czechoslovakia for confederal affiliation, which took place in the summer of 1919.
From 1925 to 1929 Voloschyn was a member of the Ruthenian National Christian Party in the Czechoslovak parliament . After the autonomy of Carpathian Ukraine within Czecho-Slovakia Č-SR on October 11, 1938, he replaced the Russophiles as the leader of the Ukrainophiles on October 26, 1938 and succeeded Andrij Brodij as Prime Minister. The country was Ukrainized and an army of 5,000 soldiers was raised. After the First Vienna Arbitration , Hungary annexed the south of the Carpathian Ukraine, and the capital had to be moved from Uzhhorod to Khust . His fascist party Ukrajinské národní sjednocení achieved 92.40% in the Soim elections on February 12, 1939. Volozhyn was connected to the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and used fascist methods to fight the political opposition.
After Hitler's defeat of Czechoslovakia in 1939, he declared Carpathian Ukraine independent on March 14, 1939, and was appointed President by the Soim on March 15. The declaration of independence, however, was only a symbolic gesture in view of the Hungarian invasion, only hours before his flight. The independent Carpathian Ukraine was occupied and annexed by Hungary on March 16, 1939 .
Voloschyn fled via Romania and Zagreb to Prague, where he lived as a private person in a monastery. After the Soviet Army had conquered the territory of Carpathian Ukraine in March 1945, sealed by a treaty with the newly established Czechoslovakia, it was incorporated into Soviet territory and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic . Volozhyn was arrested after the liberation of Prague in May 1945 and taken to Moscow , where he died on July 19, 1945 in Butyrka prison.
Accused by the communists of collaboration with the National Socialists, Voloshyn was stylized by Ukrainophiles in the West as a hero and martyr for their cause.
- Newspaper article about Avgustyn Woloschyn in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- Ivan Katchanovski, Zenon E. Kohut, Bohdan Y. Nebesio, Myroslav Yurkevich (eds.): Historical Dictionary of Ukraine. Scarecrow Press, 2013, ISBN 978-0-8108-7847-1 , p. 741.
- Orest Subtelny: Ukraine. A history. University of Toronto Press, Toronto 2009, ISBN 978-1-4426-9728-7 , p. 408 .
- Christopher Lawrence Zugger: The Forgotten. Catholics of the Soviet Empire from Lenin Through Stalin. Syracuse University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8156-0679-6 , p. 378.
- Paul R. Magocsi: Shaping of a National Identity. Subcarpathian Rus' 1848-1948. Harvard University Press, 1978, ISBN 0-674-80579-8 , p. 332.
Head of Government of Carpathian Ukraine
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Volozhyn, Avgustyn Ivanovich (full name); Волошин, Авґустин (Ukrainian); Vološin, Augustin (Czech); Voloshyn, Avhustyn; Voloshyn, Augustin|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Carpathian-Ukrainian politician, teacher and writer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 17, 1874|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Kelecsény , Mishhirja district|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 19, 1945|
|Place of death||Moscow|