Bengler (Knight League)

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The Bengler (also Bengeler or Klüppelgesellschaft) were a noble society of Hessian and Westphalian nobility.


The urchins worked at the end of the 14th century and are named after their social symbol , which represents a urchin (also morning star , or mace). The knights of the Bengler society are said to have worn a gold and the squires a silver mark, probably on a chain in front of their chests, as was customary in other societies (e.g. sickle society, star society and Schleglerbund ).

The union was created by Konrad II. Spiegel zum Desenberg , Friedrich the Elder. Ä. from the old house Padberg , Friedrich III. founded by Hertingshausen and 26 other members on September 29, 1391 after the Falken Society was dissolved. The Bengler family was founded on the initiative of Friedrich von Alten Haus Padberg the Elder. Ä., Who was in feud with the bishopric of Paderborn , and the Mainz bailiff Konrad Spiegel zum Desenberg, who probably wanted to organize support for the dispute between the archbishopric Mainz and the landgraviate of Hesse (under Landgrave Hermann II ). Logically, the Archbishop of Mainz, Konrad II von Weinsberg, took the Benglers under his protection immediately after their foundation and allied with them on November 5th. The federal government was founded for a period of three years.

The Benglers (without Konrad Spiegel zum Desenberg) fought primarily against Bishop Ruprecht von Berg of Paderborn . In 1391 Friedrich von Padberg was captured with 48 men, but released for a ransom. This was followed by an expansion of the feud, in the course of which the area around Padberg was completely devastated by the Paderborn bishop.

The work of the Bengler is to be classified in the larger political context of the time. During his raids through the Paderborn region in 1394, Friedrich von Padberg also found support from Count Dietrich von der Mark.

The rebels were not crushed until 1396 by the Paderborn prince-bishop Johann I von Hoya and his brother Otto IV. , The prince-bishop of Münster.

The 29 members

Friedrich III. from the old house of Padberg, one of the leaders of the Benglers (reconstruction 2007)


  • Karl Ernst Demandt : The personal state of the Landgraviate of Hesse in the Middle Ages . Marburg 1981.
  • Rainer Decker: Ubi lis continua et pax est rara . The feuds in the south of the diocese of Paderborn towards the end of the 14th century. In: Monastery-City-Region. Festschrift for Heinrich Rüthing , Bielefeld 2002, pp. 235–250.
  • Rainer Decker: Robber barons in Paderborner and Corveyer Land , Heimatkundliche Schriftenreihe 37. Paderborn, 2006. P. 23 ff.
  • Regina Görner: robber barons . Münster 1987, p. 227f.
  • Georg Landau : The knight societies in Hessen during the 14th and 15th centuries. Kassel, 1840, pp. 87-88: The Bengeler society .
  • Christoph von Rommel: History of Hessen . 2. Theil, Kassel 1823, p. 225 ff.
  • Josef Rüther: Local history of the Brilon district . Münster, 1956. p. 177
  • H. Diemar (editor): The chronicles of Wigand Gerstenberg von Frankenberg . In: Publications of the Hist. Komm. For Hessen and Waldeck VII, 1st Marburg, 1909.
  • Tilemann Elhe von Wolfhagen: The Limburg Chronicle . Karl Reuss, Limburg / Lahn, 1961.

Individual evidence

  1. Görner p. 227 / Dortmunder Urkundenbuch Volume 2.2, No. 821
  2. Konrad Spiegel zum Desenberg was appointed by Archbishop Adolf I on October 26, 1382 as the highest bailiff and bailiff of the Electoral Mainz estates in Hesse, Saxony, Westphalia, Thuringia and on the Eichsfeld; this position was limited on March 26, 1385 to the officials and bailiwick of the Hessian and neighboring Westphalian areas. On November 16, 1399, Adolf's successor, Archbishop Johann II , transferred the senior office and bailiff to Count Heinrich VII von Waldeck. See Friedrich Küch:  Spiegel, Konrad . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 35, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1893, p. 158 f.