Bernard from Botonus

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bernard von Botonus (*? In Parma ; † March 24, 1266 in Bologna ) was a leading canonist . He is also known as Bern (h) ardus Parmensis after his place of birth . He became known as the leading glossator (commentator) of the canonical text Decretales Gregorii IX.

Decretals (inside writing area) and the commentary by Bernard von Botonus (outside columns)
The Glossa ordinaria by Bernard von Botonus


Bernard studied at the University of Bologna , among others with Tankred von Bologna and Vincenzo Ispano . In 1232 he is mentioned as a master's degree . He received the post of canon at the Cathedral of Bologna . Bernhard became a teacher of canon law at the University of Bologna and its chancellor . He was also chaplain to Popes Innocent IV and Alexander IV , for whom he also worked as an advisor on legal issues. On June 10, 1262 he wrote a will , which he supplemented and confirmed on June 9, 1265. He wanted to be buried next to his teacher, Tancredi, in the Cathedral of Bologna. He bequeathed his books to his nephew Gerardo .



Bernhard became known well after his death as the leading glossator of the decretals of Pope Gregory IX. (also: Liber Extra of 1234), a legal text that was only replaced by the Codex Iuris Canonici in 1917 . His commentary fully follows the sequence of the decretals and has not yet been systematized. He completed his work after 30 years in 1263. Before that, however, individual sections of the text were already in circulation. His commentary was soon recognized as the standard commentary on the decretals and was referred to as the Glossa Ordinaria . Bernard also commented on other canonical texts. He was already working with a reference, by carefully making a note of who gave the information he was reproducing. He marked his own conclusions with the note "Ber." or "Bern."


  • Glossa Ordinaria (on the decretals of George IX)
  • Summa super tittilis Decretalium
  • Casus Longi , a further commentary on individual decretals of Pope Gregory IX, their factual and legal problems.
  • The assignment of the manuscript Consilium magistri Bernardi doctoris Decretalium , of which only one copy has survived, to Bernard is not certain.

Worth knowing

The Glossa ordinaria of Bernard appeared from 1468 to 1471 for the first time as a printed book in Strasbourg at Heinrich Eggestein and 1473 when Peter Schöffer in Mainz .

Bernard von Botonus should not be confused with Bernhard von Pavia .


in alphabetical order by authors / editors


  1. It is unclear what the “botonus” refers to, it is probably a location (Abbondanza).
  2. The oldest surviving mention of this is found in 1247 (Abbondanza)
  3. The oldest surviving mention of this is found in 1255 (Abbondanza)
  4. These were the works Codicem, Digestum Vetus et Digestum Novum et Summa Uguitionis in Decretis, Psalterium cum ymnario and others (Abbondanza).

Individual evidence

  1. Abbondanza.
  2. Abbondanza.
  3. Meehan.
  4. Abbondanza.
  5. Abbondanza.
  6. Meehan.
  7. According to: Meehan; Abbondanza.
  8. Abbondanza.
  9. Abbondanza.
  10. General catalog of the Wiegendrucke No. 11450, 11451 ( Memento of the original from September 12, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.