Bigotry ( French bigotry ) or hypocrisy is the name for a pious, intolerant , hateful and apparently entirely devoted to religion or a religious authority (person or instance) being or behavior, whereby the actual lifestyle is not actually religious or strictly moral is held. The Duden describes bigotry as hypocrisy and “petty, narrow-minded piety and exaggerated zeal for faith”. The associated adjective is "bigott".
Bigot was in the 18th century from the same major French bigot borrowed, but whose origin is unclear. The word is mentioned for the first time in 1165 in the Roman de Rou by Wace as a swear word against the Normans . It was also used with the spellings bigod, bigoth . The main presumption is that it was derived from the Old English bī god (“by God”) or be gode , an old English oath .
According to Pfeifer , the adjective bigott for “pious, hypocritical” has been attested in the same meaning in French since the 15th century and was already borrowed as bigot in English and as bigotto in Italian in the 17th century . It came into German around the turn of the 18th century, where it appeared bigoted in the Germanized spelling since the middle of the century . The noun span. Bigote for " gag beard " (span. Hombre de bigote "man with gag beard", translated "man of character"), which is also used to explain bigot and its development of meaning, goes after Corominas 1 , 457 f. probably also back to such a formula. Other authors such as Best in Die Neueren Sprachen (1969) 497 ff., On the other hand, see Begotian Yiddish “pious, gottbegnadet” (to mhd. Got “God”) as a possible source for the French adjective.
Bigotry is less about religiosity as such, but more about the fearful and exaggerated conscientiousness in its practice.
Meyer's Großes Konversations-Lexikon defined bigoted in 1905as:
"Worshiping, canting, zealous in the meticulous exercise of religious customs, but without a more serious religious life and strict moral attitude."
As hypocrisy also is hypocrisy ( " Pharisees ") or double standards referred to when people, for example, ostensibly a high moral pretend ( lip service practice), but in fact low moral standards. The Duden hypocritically describes it as “pretending to be sincerity, ignorance or friendliness; hypocritical".
Adelung International Dictionary of the High German dialect called hypocritical in 1798 as:
“ Accepting and having the outward appearance of holiness, that is, the fear of God , without really being it. A hypocrite, a hypocrite, who in common life is also called a head hanger, in Lower Saxony a biblical bearer, church clerk, saint eater, holy biteer, etc. A hypocritical behavior. "
Bigotry differs from self-righteousness in that bigotry makes less high demands of itself than it does of others, while a self-righteous person may strive for moral and moral impeccability.
Literature and film
Bigotry and bigotry are a constant theme in E. Marlitt's work .
In the US horror film Carrie from 1976, bigotry and its aftermath become a drama.
The Swedish-Danish music film - drama Wie im Himmel from 2004 impressively depicts the potential for conflict of the bigotry of village church life.
- Ernst Keil : Letter to a believer . In: The Gazebo . Volume 42, 1866, pp. 655-657 ( full text [ Wikisource ]).
- Thomas Druyen: war of hypocrisy. A plea for common sense. Maxlin, Düsseldorf 2012, ISBN 978-3-9814141-4-1 .
- Ulrike Günther: Don't touch the cat !: Pictures and scenes from a childhood in the 50s . Books on Demand , Norderstedt 2015, ISBN 978-3-7386-2455-7 .
- Leopold Federmair: Adalbert Stifter and the joys of bigotry Müller, Salzburg / Vienna 2015, ISBN 3-7013-1095-5 .
- ↑ Bigott . In: Herders Conversations-Lexikon. Freiburg im Breisgau 1854, Volume 1, p. 536.
- ↑ Bigotry. Bibliographisches Institut (Dudenverlag), accessed on October 16, 2013 .
- ^ Duden, The dictionary of origin, Etymology of the German language . Duden Volume 7. Duden Verlag, p. 81 b.
- ↑ Etymology of bigot . (French)
- ↑ bigoted. In: Digital dictionary of the German language . Retrieved October 25, 2013 .
- ↑ Bigott . In: Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon. Volume 7. Amsterdam 1809, p. 119.
- ↑ Bigott . In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon . 6th edition. Volume 2, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1905, p. 855 .
- ↑ hypocritical. In: Duden online ; Retrieved March 27, 2010.
- ↑ Hypocritical . In: Johann Christoph Adelung: Grammatical-critical dictionary of the High German dialect. Volume 3. Leipzig 1798, p. 1403.
- ↑ Urszula Bonter: The popular novel in the successor of E. Marlitt: Wilhelmine Heimburg, Valeska Countess Bethusy-Huc, Eufemia von Adlersfeld-Ballestrem . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2005, ISBN 3-8260-2979-8 , p. 127 ( limited preview in Google Book search).