Herring vendace ( Coregonus clupeaformis )
|Bonaparte , 1850|
The Coregoninae or Coregonidae (whitefish and relatives) are a subfamily of the salmon fish (Salmonidae) or a family of the salmon-like (Salmoniformes). They are mostly fish with a slender, laterally flattened body, narrow mouth and small or receding teeth. They occur in fresh waters in northern North America, in northern and central Europe and in northern Asia. The greatest biodiversity lives in Siberia .
Coregoninae have large scales, which, unlike the herring-like species, sit firmly. They always have fewer than 110 scales along the clearly visible side line . The short dorsal fin is supported by fewer than 16 fin rays. The pelvic fins sit low ( ventral ), the caudal fin is forked or clearly indented. The maxillary is edentulous, the ploughshare has small teeth or is edentulous. An orbitosphenoid (skull bone) is present, a suprapraoperculare (bone of the gill cover) is missing. Coregoninae are monochrome gray, whitish or brown.
Way of life
Among the Coregoninae there are migratory fish in flowing waters and brackish coastlines and stationary forms in standing fresh waters. All of them need oxygen and prefer cold waters. They feed on plankton and benthalen invertebrates , the white salmon ( Stenodus leucichthys ) on smaller fish. Coregoninae usually spawn in late autumn or winter. The eggs usually take three to four months to develop.
There are three genera with over 70 species, numerous subspecies and local forms:
Many species hybridize with one another.
The Coregoninae are classified in most systematics as a subfamily of the salmon fish (Salmonidae), in more recent publications sometimes also as an independent family within the salmon-like (Salmoniformes).
The following cladogram shows the systematic position of the Coregoninae:
- Kurt Fiedler: Fish (= textbook of special zoology. Vol. 2: Vertebrates. Part. 2). Gustav Fischer, Jena 1991, ISBN 3-334-00338-8 .
- Joseph S. Nelson : Fishes of the World. 4th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken NJ et al. 2006, ISBN 0-471-25031-7 .
- Nelson (2006)
- Fiedler (1991)
- Maurice Kottelat & Jörg Freyhof: Handbook of European Freshwater Fishes. 2007, ISBN 978-2-8399-0298-4 .
- EO Wiley & G. David Johnson: A teleost classification based on monophyletic groups. Pp. 123-182 in Joseph S. Nelson , Hans-Peter Schultze & Mark VH Wilson: Origin and Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Teleosts. 2010, Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich, ISBN 978-3-89937-107-9 .