from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dentist ([dɛnˈtist], from Latin dens "tooth") was a professional title that existed in Germany until 1952, alongside dentists , for dentists without academic training. These were dental technicians who were allowed to treat patients after successfully attending a dentist school. In many other countries and languages ​​it is the name for a dentist with an academic education ( dentist ). In Germany today the term is used as a derogatory term for a dentist.

History of dentists in Germany

Medical and dental license from the North German Confederation, 1869, which dentists were denied
Ordinance on the Association of Cashiers in Germany of December 13, 1940

Soon after the constitution of the North German Confederation (1861–1871) came into force on April 16, 1867, in accordance with Section 29 of the Trade Regulations for the North German Confederation in 1869, a first license to practice medicine called “Announcement concerning the examination of doctors, dentists, veterinarians and pharmacists” was issued. In 1872 it also became legally effective for the newly founded German Reich, according to which anyone was allowed to treat sick people without proof of appropriate training. Soon non-licensed medical practitioners switched to changing the job title “dental artist” to “dentist”. For the unapproved dentists, the dentists for their part suggested the - derogatory - job titles "dental worker" or "dentist worker". With regard to the professional title dentist, they indignantly referred to the Romance and Anglo-Saxon language usage, according to which the terms “dentiste” or “dentist” denote a licensed dentist. However, a sworn expert for foreign languages ​​came to the following conclusion in a court report in 1907:

“The meaning of the word 'dentist', according to what it is composed of, can be divided into two things: into dens = tooth and the final syllable 'is (e)'. The same final syllable is attached to many words of people who have some kind of occupation, business, art, etc., for example ars = art, artist = artist, someone who practices the arts. It goes without saying that there is no title in such designations, rather the designation 'dentist' is to be understood as a person who deals with the treatment of teeth, probably also with the production of artificial teeth, so that the designation 'dental artist, dental technician' would say the same thing as a 'dentist'. So it is the person who calls himself a dentist, a dental technician practicing an independent trade, who does not claim a title and who does not have it. Those claiming and entitled to a title who passed an exam are dentists or, depending on their university education, doctors of dental practice. Neither with a foreigner nor a resident can confusion between dentist and dentist. "

In 1908, the “Association of German Dental Artists” was renamed the “Association of Dentists in the German Empire” (VDDR). In the years that followed, the term “dentist” found its way into official language, regardless of the dental protests.

In 1910, training as a dentist in Germany comprised at least six years. Of these, three years had to be completed with a dentist and one year of training in prosthetics , mainly with a dentist. This was followed by a four-semester training at a teaching institute for dentists with a final exam. Licensed medical personnel were authorized to train at the training institutes for dentists.

In 1920, dentistry training was recognized by the state. After completing the state examination in dentistry, the graduates were "state-certified dentists". They did not receive a license to practice medicine .

During the time of National Socialism , SA Oberführer Fritz Blumenstein (1898–1993) was Reichsdentist leader and from 1940 head of the German Association of Cashiers. The "Reichsverband Deutscher Dentisten" (Reich Association of German Dentists) showed a great willingness in the "Third Reich" to lend themselves to the Nazi regime in terms of professional policy in order to defend the market position of dentists (contested by the organized dental profession).

In 1949 the dualism between dentists and dentists came to an end in the Soviet zone of occupation (Leipzig Agreement). The legal basis was the "Order on the license to practice medicine for dentists of March 2, 1949", which was issued by the central health system of the German Economic Commission. The order stipulated that dentists should be accepted into the dental profession or prepared for a shortened university course after a corresponding training period, which was based on the duration of their practice.

Termination of dualism

In 1952, dentist training was ended in the Federal Republic of Germany and elements of dentist training were included in university dental training. Erich Müller played a decisive role in this . With the Dentistry Act (ZHG) of March 31, 1952, the courier freedom was finally abolished and the dualism with the dentist class through the “Bonn Agreement” (also known as the “Allensbach Agreement”) ended. By the end of 1953, the 15,000 then working German dentists provided by a 60-hour training course the appropriate credential and received thereupon the appointment as a dentist. For decades, the academically trained, licensed dentists tried to differentiate themselves from the dentists by obtaining a doctorate (Dr. med. Dent.). In the era of dentists who had mutated into dentists through their short training, doctors created the term "narrow-gauge medicine" for this professional group. They were denied a doctorate due to a lack of academic studies.

The ZHG regulated in § 8 the license to practice as a dentist for dentists and in § 9 and § 10 for dentist assistants and applicants. The crash course took place in the subjects of oral and jaw diseases including dental surgery in 40 hours and in drug theory including drug prescription theory in 20 hours at a teaching institute for dentists. Dentist assistants could obtain the license to practice medicine if they passed the dentist examination by April 1, 1954 and attended the above courses. Candidates also had to take an exam. The license to practice medicine was only granted after the age of 25 and applications for license to practice medicine from the above could only be submitted until January 27, 1980.

The profession of dentist lives on in Section 18, Paragraph 1, No. 1 of the Income Tax Act, where dentists and dentists are expressly mentioned as an example of the liberal professions.

Dentists in Austria

In Austria , in addition to dentists and specialists in dentistry, oral and maxillofacial medicine, dental activities can also be carried out by dentists. Dentists are people who, after completing an apprenticeship as a dental technician, have completed additional special training that concludes with the dentist examination, which consisted of practical and theoretical content. The dentist examination was only permitted until December 31, 1975.

As graduates of a non-university education, dentists are not to be equated with dentists. Their activity was regulated in the Dentists Act. With the dentists' association there was a separate professional representation that was independent of the medical associations .

Since the amendment in Federal Law Gazette I No. 45/1999 , dentists have been entitled to use the professional title “Dentist” and to add the training title “Dentist” in brackets next to this professional title. Since the ECJ declared this regulation to be in breach of Union law, this regulation was abolished on January 1, 2006. This means that dentists are again only allowed to use the professional title “Dentist”.

On January 1, 2006, the new dentist law came into force, which completes the separation of the professions of doctor and dentist. The Dental Law applies not only to dentists and specialists in dentistry, oral and maxillofacial medicine, but also to dentists. With the Austrian Chamber of Dentists , a professional representative body was set up, separate from the medical chambers, in which not only the dentists and specialists for dentistry, oral and maxillofacial medicine, but also the few remaining dentists are organized. The Dentist Chamber was dissolved at the same time. In 2011 the Austrian Dental Association had 4722 members, including 3194 specialists in dentistry, oral and maxillofacial medicine, 1480 dentists and only 48 dentists.

Dentists in other languages

In the case of translations from other languages ​​such as English or French, a mistranslation is possible, as the English word dentist [ˈdɛntist] or the French word dentiste [dɑ̃ˈtist] means dentist.

Denturists and dentures

Some did not agree with the abolition of the dentist class and emigrated to Canada . An initially illegal profession of denturists developed. They were essentially limited to the production of partial and full dentures , which they also incorporated into the patient. It wasn't until 1961 that this profession was recognized in Alberta by the Dental Mechanics Act of Alberta . It was introduced in numerous other Canadian provinces. They founded The Denturist Association of Canada , which represents this profession to this day. The development in the USA was similar. British Columbia licensed denturists to practice in 1958, followed by Maine in 1977 , and Arizona and Oregon in 1978. Idaho passed laws in 1982, Montana in 1984, and Washington in 1994 . In the same year, The American Academy of Medical Denturitry was founded in Montana as a professional agency . There were similar developments around the world, for example in Australia , where the Dental Prosthetists are represented by The Australian Dental Prosthetists Association , in the United Kingdom and Switzerland . In the latter, the dental prosthetists are represented in the Swiss Dental Prosthetic Association founded in 1962 . You must successfully pass a cantonal examination to become a qualified dentist. In some cases, the job description was expanded to include the production of dental fillings , dental crowns and the bleaching of teeth .

In Belgium, a three-year training course to become a tand prosthesis has been offered since 1971 . It is held on Saturdays at the Institute for Tandic Prosthesis Antwerp. The admission requirement is a completed training as a dental technician. Your professional association is the Union of Belgian Denturists - Union Belge Denturists Diplomé (UBDD). In Holland the conditions are set out in Article 34. The professional organization is the Organizatie van Nederlandse Tandprothetici (ONT) organization of Dutch dental prostheses, which was recognized by the Dutch government in 1997. She keeps the register of dentists.

The national organizations of denturists are represented in the International Federation of Denturists (IFD), which was founded in 1992.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Dental Forum KZV Baden-Wuerttemberg, dental lexicon
  2. dentalfresh: The profession of dentist in dentistry (PDF; 309 kB)
  3. a b Dominik Groß, The Dentist prevails ( Memento of the original from January 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Dental Notices, 21/2015. Retrieved January 3, 2016. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  4. a b Dominik Groß, From "Dentist" to State-Certified Dentist: The Vocational Training Process for Unapproved Dental Practitioners (1869-1952) , in: Dominik Groß (Ed.), Contributions to the History and Ethics of Dentistry, Würzburg 2006, p. 99– 125.
  5. Appointment to the Reich Association of German Dentists. In:  Völkischer Beobachter. Battle sheet of the national (-) socialist movement of Greater Germany. Vienna edition / Vienna observer. Daily supplement to the “Völkischer Beobachter” , June 30, 1940, p. 17 (online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / vob
  6. Erik Bauer, Fritz Blumenstein 1898–1993: Life and work of the Reichsdentistenführer , Königshausen a. Neumann (May 2002), ISBN 3-8260-2367-6 .
  7. Enno Schwanke and Dominik Groß, The Reich Association of German Dentists: "Gleichschaltung" - elimination - professional consolidation , in: Matthis Krischel, Mathias Schmidt and Dominik Groß (eds.), Medical Associations in National Socialism. Inventory and Perspectives (= Medicine and National Socialism, 4), Berlin 2016, pp. 173–196.
  8. Juris Dentistry Act (PDF; 98 kB)
  9. Karl Schuchardt biography from p. 132 (PDF; 2.7 MB)
  10. ^ Dentists Act in the version of January 1, 2005 in the federal legal information system.
  11. Case C ‑ 437/03 Commission of the European Communities v Republic of Austria
  12. Public Health Portal of Austria, ÖZÄK, members stand
  13. Denturism in Canada , The Denturist Association of Canada. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  14. History ( Memento of the original from February 25, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , The American Academy of Medical Denturitry. Retrieved February 25, 2016. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  15. Denturist Associations , The Denturist Association of Canada. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  16. ^ The Australian Dental Prosthetists Association . Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  17. The Swiss Dental Prosthetic Association ( Memento of the original from February 25, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Swiss Dental Prosthetic Association. Retrieved February 25, 2016. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  18. Union Belge Denturists Diplomé website . Retrieved February 5, 2017.
  19. website of the Nederlandse Organisatie Tandprothetici . Retrieved February 5, 2017.
  20. International Federation of Denturists (IFD). Retrieved February 25, 2016.