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In verse theory, a three- line (also tristichon or trio ) is a stanza or poem form consisting of three verses . In the case of rhyming forms, the possible rhyme schemes either consist of a pair of rhymes with an orphan line (rhyme scheme mostly[axa], less often too [xaa] or [aax]), as well as the same rhyme ([aaa]).

Well-known forms of three-line stanzas are ritornello in Italian poetry and the stanza of tercines as a classical stanza in Dante's Divina Commedia . The terzine form can serve as an example of a rhyme combination that goes beyond the individual stanza: The rhyme of the single verse is taken up as a pair of rhymes in the following verse, etc .:

[aba bcb cdc ded ...]

In the end, the rhyme of the pair of rhymes of the first stanza can be taken up again, with four stanzas this would result in the rhyme scheme

[aba bcb cdc dad].

Alternatively, you can close with a so-called orphan fee :

[aba bcb cdc dxd].

The two final terzets in the sonnet also belong to the three-line works . There are numerous variants for their rhyme scheme, initially corresponding to the terzin form[aba bab] and also:

[aab ccb]
[abc abc]
[aab bcc]
[abc cab]

and so on.

In French poetry there is the tercet as a replica of the terzine in the 16th century in Baïf , Jodelle and Desportes , in the 19th century in Gautier and Banville and in the 20th century in Aragon and Éluard . Examples of single-line three-line lines ( tercets monorimes ) are found in central French lyrical and dramatic poetry and in modern times by Auguste Brizeux ( La fleur d'Or ).

The three-line line is relatively rare in German folk songs. An example is:

High up on that mountain,
there is a little diamond strewn
twisted out of the earth.

In German art poetry, three-line characters appear scattered in the poems of Brentano , Liliencron , Heym , Trakl and Loerke .

In the non-European literatures the best-known example is the Japanese haiku , which is actually a one-line poem divided into three word groups, but in European transcriptions and reproductions it usually appears as a three-line poem. Another East Asian three-line poem form is the Korean sijo .


Individual evidence

  1. Ludwig Uhland (ed.): Old high and low German folk songs with treatise and notes. Volume 1: Song collection in five books. Department 2. Cotta, Stuttgart et al. 1845, No. 290, p. 750, 1st stanza, online .