Isaak Mannheimer

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Isaak Mannheimer, lithograph by Eduard Kaiser , 1858
Isaak Mannheimer's grave in Vienna's central cemetery

Isaak Noah Mannheimer (born October 17, 1793 in Copenhagen ; † March 17, 1865 in Vienna ) was a rabbi who is known, among other things, for his sermons and ritual reforms.


After the emancipation of the Jews in Denmark in 1814, Mannheimer was appointed the first royal catechist two years later . After visiting Vienna for the first time in 1821 and creating a program to harmonize the Orthodox and liberal rites for use there, he first returned to Copenhagen and spent the next two years in Berlin and Hamburg . In 1824, on the initiative of the Viennese wholesaler and jeweler Michael Lazar Biedermann, he was appointed head of the Israelite religious school in Vienna. Before the legal existence of the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien he held the title of preacher, from 1852 rabbi.

He gave the sermon at the laying of the foundation stone of the Vienna City Temple in 1825. In 1848 he organized together with the Catholic Dr. Anton Flüster held an “ ecumenical funeral ceremony” at the grave of those who fell in March . In 1848 he was elected to the Imperial Council by the city of Brody . On his 70th birthday in 1863, he was from the city of Vienna, the civil rights conferred honorary. Two years later, Rabbi Mannheimer died at his place of work, in the synagogue on Seitenstettengasse. He was buried at the Jewish cemetery in Währing (now in Döbling ), and later his remains were transferred to the Vienna Central Cemetery .

Work and reception

Mannheimer is shaped by the movement of liberal Judaism and Reform Judaism ; for example, he preached in the reform synagogues in Berlin, Hamburg and Leipzig. As the “main catechist” in Copenhagen, he initially completely renounced the Hebrew language and also used music by Christian composers. In later years of his work in Vienna, Mannheimer turned away from radical Reform Judaism and turned to more moderate forms; he then considers the Hebrew language to be indispensable. In his preaching style, which only gave little weight to didactic aspects, he was also based in part on Christian theologians. Historically, Mannheimer is considered to be “one of the leading preachers of the 19th century” who reached “all levels of the Jewish population”. Adolf howler verdict: "His effectiveness as a preacher is to be designated for Judaism almost as an epoch-making." In particular, Mannheimer the so-called ". Viennese rite " or "Mannheimer rite" influenced, located in Jewish communities in Austria, Hungary, Bohemia and partly spread to Germany and, as a moderate-modern form, prevented a split in the Viennese community. Many of his “Divine Service Lectures” have been published, both in Danish and German as well as a Hebrew translation (by E. Kuttner). The Viennese prayer book, first published in 1840, is considered to be Mannheimer's main work. It was reprinted again and again under changing titles, partially revised and supplemented, until the 20th century.


Web links

Commons : Isaak Mannheimer  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Feuilleton. An interesting episode from 1848. Reminiscences of IN Mannheimer. In:  Wiener Jüdische Volksstimme , August 8, 1912, p. 1 f. (Online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / jvs
  2. Cf. Bernard Suler: MANNHEIMER, ISAAC NOAH . In: Encyclopaedia Judaica , 2nd ed., Vol. 13, p. 482.
  3. Bernard Suler: MANNHEIMER, ISAAC NOAH . In: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed., Vol. 13, p. 482: "one of the leading preachers of the 19th century, attracting all segments of the Jewish population ... he adhered to an inspirational rather than didactic concept of preaching ... he was not reluctant to acknowledge his debt to Christian masters of the art of preaching. ".
  4. ^ Adolf Brüll:  Mannheimer, Isaak Noah . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 20, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1884, pp. 205-207.
  5. Cf. Bernard Suler: MANNHEIMER, ISAAC NOAH . In: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed., Vol. 13, p. 482; J. Moser:  Mannheimer Isak Noa. In: Austrian Biographical Lexicon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Volume 6, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 1975, ISBN 3-7001-0128-7 , p. 56 f. (Direct links to p. 56 , p. 57 ). Here p. 56.
  6. Suler, p. 482; Robert S. Wistrich : The Jews of Vienna in the age of Emperor Franz Joseph , Böhlau, Vienna and others. 1999, p. 85 ( available from Google Books ).
  7. ^ Festive prayers of the Israelites according to the order of worship in the Israelite prayer house in Vienna and in several other communities , with a new translation by IN Mannheimer, Religious Teacher and Preacher , 3 volumes, FE v. Schmidt / JJ Busch, Vienna 1840.
  8. See for example the prayer book of the Israelites , published in 1969 by the Sinai publishing house in Tel Aviv, with the prayer for the good (שָׁלוֹם) of the state of Israel (p. 248).
  9. Permalink Austrian Library Association .