The word can already be found as Old High German creiʒ and chreiʒ , Middle High German kreiʒ for ' circle , the environment (of a center)', early High German also Kreiß . The word is thus parallel to district (ancient circle , Latin circulus 'circle', cf. also Latin orbis in the same meaning).
In the early Middle Ages, the word for the judicial district and primarily refers to the location of the trial itself, but with the effect the words ahd. Ring and ding (see. Old Norse thing ) often were.
" Waʒ mac diu âventiure sîn
hie in dises hages kreiʒ? "
With the designation of the area in which the pronouncement made in the legal circle is binding, i.e. the landscape and the people who fall under its jurisdiction, the term goes over early on to the concept field empire ( ahd. Rîhhi , rule , territory ') .
“ I always want to circling in sînes [the king's] land. "
It also means the (legal) administrative divisions, this is also the form mhd. Bekraißungen find:
" Circle in des rîches "
Unlike Gau , which is meant always scenic, is the circle of the aspect above sovereign retained, the word also addresses the church administration and site protection, such as hunting and the guilds over.
Administrative unit today
Circle in the sense of an administrative unit stands for:
- District and district , according to German local law a community association and a regional authority
- Stadtkreis , an independent city in Baden-Württemberg
- District and administrative district in Switzerland, see District (Switzerland)
Historical administrative terms:
- Imperial circle , territorial unit of the Holy Roman Empire encompassing several sovereigns (approx. 1500 to 1806)
- The districts of the Kingdom of Bohemia from the 14th century, forerunners of the Kraje in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
- Kreis , the administrative districts after Maria Theresa's administrative reform from 1748, based on or developed from the old Bohemian districts, was replaced by the political districts in the 1860s .
- various district courts, see district court
- the former designation of today's administrative districts in Bavaria, see administrative structure of Bavaria
- a former administrative unit in Saxony, see list of the districts and other areas of Kursachsen and district main team
- a former administrative unit introduced in the Grand Duchy of Hesse in 1832, see district (Hessen-Darmstadt)
Word usage as a translation of analogue foreign language expressions:
- rreth / i , a former administrative unit in Albania, see districts of Albania
- gun , a former administrative unit in Japan,reformedbased on counties in the 1890s,abolished in 1921, but used as a geographical unit to this day
Other organizational areas (cf. also Gau for regional groups of associations )
- Church district , in some Protestant churches an amalgamation of neighboring parishes
- CIRCLE, KREISZ, m. orbis, circulus . In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm : German Dictionary . Hirzel, Leipzig 1854–1961 ( woerterbuchnetz.de , University of Trier).
- KREIS 3) judicial circle in general . In: Grimm: German dictionary. Hirzel, Leipzig 1854–1961 ( woerterbuchnetz.de , University of Trier).
- KREIS 9) district, area, 'district' in general . In: Grimm: German dictionary. Hirzel, Leipzig 1854–1961 ( woerterbuchnetz.de , University of Trier).
- CIRCLE 9) d) The empire was also divided into circles, as countries and states are still today: circles or districts. imperial order. Worms 1539 94b, Kreisz and Zirkel 32a (vj 1500); . In: Grimm: German dictionary. Hirzel, Leipzig 1854–1961 ( woerterbuchnetz.de , University of Trier).