Krieewelsch is the name of the Krefeld dialect and means Krefeldisch . Krieewelsch is classified as the East Limburg dialect of Limburg , a Lower Rhine ( Lower Rhine ) regional language . From a linguistic point of view, Krieewelsch can therefore be classified as the southern Lower Franconian dialect of the Lower Franconian dialects. A precise classification is not possible because the city of Krefeld is located on the border of several dialect groups and dialects. The Uerdinger line (Ik-Ech line) also runs directly on the northeastern outskirts of Krefeld between today's Uerdingen district and the places that are now part of the city of Duisburg , with the northernmost district of Hüls also lying north of this line in the northern Lower Franconian language area.
Like all local languages in northwest Germany, Krieewelsch is also named with the collective term Platt . "Wir kalle Krieewelsch Platt on püemele os satt" is the name of an event with the participation of the Krefeld dialect circle ( We talk Krefeld Platt and eat each other gradually and in small bites - a somewhat crooked translation)
In the districts of Fischeln , Oppum or Hüls , which are incorporated into Krefeld , there are sometimes considerable linguistic differences, mainly in terms of intonation and pronunciation, but also in different meanings. Especially the district of Uerdingen , which was incorporated into Krefeld at the beginning of the 20th century , maintains its “Oedingsch” until today . A characteristic of the Hölsch Plott (Hülser Platt) spoken in the Hüls district is the use of “ek” or “ec” for the High German personal pronoun “I” . In contrast, the Krieewelsch spoken south of the Uerdinger line in the city of Krefeld belongs to the southern Lower Franconian language area, characterizing the use of “ech” or “esch” for the pronoun “I” . Fischeln plateau speakers can be clearly recognized by the auxiliary verb haben . While in Krefeld they say häbbe , the people of Fischeln say han . I häbb kien tied - I hann kien tied.
At the beginning of the 17th century Krefeld had just 350 inhabitants. Just a hundred years later there were already more than seven times as many. Most of the residents were not born in Krefeld, but rather religious refugees from the surrounding areas and later from all over Germany, who found refuge in Krefeld, which was part of Orange , and made their homes here. Today, due to this mixture of different dialects, it is no longer possible to clarify exactly what was originally spoken as Krefeld's dialect. The technical language of the weavers and silk weavers has had a lasting influence on the Platt; many borrowings such as “ keep it in good shape ” or “get something on the chain ” have long since made it into the standard German language.
The initial j and middle sound of words come from Ripuarian , with g like jejange (gone). Furthermore, the coronalization of the I-sounds, which tend towards sch, as in esch (I) mesch (me).
Of the three forms of velarization in Ripuarian
- from d / t to k or g as in wick = wide
- from n to ng ng as in Wing = wine; Ring = Rhine
- from nd / nt to ng / nk as in Hunck = dog; unge = below
the first form does not occur. The second form only very rarely, mostly with female first names like Karoling (Karolin) or Katring (Katrin). Otherwise only with Ping (Pein), Ling (Leine) and Mellizing (Medicine). The tang for tooth, which is supposed to be assigned to the second form, comes from the third form, as the Dutch trinket is the basis here. The third form occurs regularly. All connections nt and nd are pronounced ng or nk.
Honk (plural Höng) = dog; Monk (plural Mönger) = mouth; Wank (plural Wäng) = wall; onge = down; henge = back.
Another not insignificant influence comes from the time of the French occupation of Krefeld towards the end of the 18th century , when some words from French were taken over as loan words in the Krieewelsch. For example “follemente” (= completely crazy) or “der Paraplü” (= the umbrella) .
When the neighbors of the Schääle you in Düsseldorf say: “There's nothing like Düsseldorf mustard”, then the people of Seidenstadt say : “Decorate your home with velvet and silk! Lott dat de Düsseldorfers ens would like to denne ir Mostert make! "(" ... let the Düsseldorfers do that with their mustard! "). When the Berliners from the capital say: “We can't do it!”, Then the people of Krefeld say: “Os can se ens allemooele!” (“We can all ...!”).
If someone is proficient in standard German but not familiar with Krieewelsch Platt and also with none of the related dialects in the immediate vicinity, he will hardly be able to understand spoken Krieewelsch. Even a secret service is said to have failed because of this.
Some examples of Krieewelian words are:
|tell||Bötze, käuere, swaths, vertebrates||see. Needles. Vertellen|
|the pot, the vessel||dat Döppe; dä pot||see. Ndl. Emmer; Pot Ndl-Limburgisch: Top; Vat; pot|
|whistle, whistle||fimp||Buute es et nasty am fimpe , outside an unpleasant wind blows. see. Ndl-Limburgisch: Buute es et vies aan 't wèjje, buute blieës ènne onaagename Wènjd|
|look||kieke||see. Ndl. Kijken Ndl-Limburgish: kieke (n), luure|
|the greenhorn||dä Lällbeck||see. ndl. loll|
|the mouth||dat Mönke, the Schnuut||Ndl. Mondje, Snuit Ndl-Limburgisch: `et Möndje, de Sjnuut|
|the neighbor||dä Nobber||Ndl. Nabuur Ndl-Limburgisch: de Naobber|
|the fruit||dat Obbs||Any fruit must be eaten quickly. see. Ndl-Krf. moet = mot; gauw = yeah; geten = jejeäte|
|the eyes||the Öigskes||Ndl. De Oogjes Ndl-Limburgs: de Öögskes|
|spitting great sounds||praatsche||see. mndl. praet , chatter|
|the paws, feet||the püet||Ndl. De Poten, Voeten Ndl-Limburgisch: de Püet, Vööt|
|large hands or feet||the quantum|
|the soul||the seal||Eäte on Drenke holds Liev on Sieel annien , food and drink hold body and soul together.|
|the time||the tied||Et jövvt Tied! , It is time! See Ndl. Tijd|
|today, these days||vandaag,||see. ndl. vandaag Ndl-Limburgish: hüü; hüütserdaag; vandaag|
|the grillage cake||dä Jrillashaat||a Krefeld specialty|
An example of a short text by Krieewel is the poem "Dodröm" by Josef Brocker:
Dä kneeit for däm Bur:
“What is your mech then yo-ehn?
Ech häbb but nothing but-ehn! "
" Since it rides, "since you däm Bur:
" You hate och nothing but-ehn,
Dröm lott ech Dech och yo-ehn! "
The declension of nouns is relatively simple, apart from special cases it only differentiates between singular / plural and grammatical gender . As in widely neighboring languages, the latter can differ from the standard German gender: “the glasses” däm brill , “the liter” dat liter , “the mouth” the gauze , and so on. Like many local languages along the Rhine, Krieewelsche usually does not use a genitive , but instead a paraphrase through a possessive expression: “The man's key was gone” Dä Schlüetel van dä Mann woer verschött jejange . Also in accordance with many neighboring local languages, the names and pronouns of girls and women in Krieewelsch are in many cases neutrally declined. A special feature of ostlimburgischen languages is also found, articles with so-called harmony sounds : "Uncle" is better with Danish Uohme than dä Uohme named euphony n and m are attached to both specific as indefinite article and does not inflected forms represent. The Krieewelsche also knows the two Rhenish forms : "It rains" Et es am reäjene , and: "He spills over like a toddler" Dä debbele like en klieen Titti .
There is an astonishingly extensive treasure trove of printed and written material on Krieewelsch Platt. This is documented by a list of publications that is regularly updated by the Krefeld city library in cooperation with the Verein für Heimatkunde. Many Krefelders had and still have fun keeping their dialect alive in poems, short stories, songs or descriptions of the current reality of life. The notions of dialect - Marionette Theater " Krieewelsche pappköpp " are regularly sold out on cards you sometimes wait many months.
- Helga Bister-Broosen: Language change in the dialect of Krefeld (= Berkeley insights in linguistics and semiotics. Vol. 3). Lang, Frankfurt am Main [a. a.] 1989, ISBN 0-8204-1006-3 .
- Kurt Hausmann, Ursula Versteegen, Theo Versteegen: Krieewelsch op de Reeh jebreit - short grammar of the Krefeld dialect . Hausmann, Krefeld 2005.
- Willy Hermes: Krieewelsch van A bes Z . van Acken, Krefeld, 1978, ISBN 3-923140-03-7
- Rudi Neuhausen: Krefeld dialect lexicon . van Acken, Krefeld 1992, ISBN 3-923140-56-8 .
- Heinrich Röttsches: The Krefeld dialect . Book printing of the orphanage, Halle 1875, urn : nbn: de: hebis: 04-eb2011-04148 .
- Heinz Webers: Dictionary Krieewelsch-German, German-Krieewelsch . SeidenweberBücherei Krefeld published by tax & more, Würzburg 2000, ISBN 3-9807395-1-1 .
- Heinz Webers: Krieewelsch Quiz . SeidenweberBücherei Krefeld published by tax & more, Würzburg 2004, ISBN 3-9807395-4-6 .
- Heinz Webers: Even more Schüenen Duorieen - Stöckskes op oser Platt . SeidenweberBücherei Krefeld published by tax & more, Würzburg 2005, ISBN 3-9807395-9-7 .
- Johannes Werner: Lexicon of the old Krefelder Platt. Words, idioms, their meanings and their origins . Edited from the estate, completed and edited by Paula Coerper-Becker (= Krefeld City Archives: Krefeld Studies. 13). van Acken, Krefeld 2004, ISBN 3-923140-91-6 .
- Dialect in Krefeld
- Krieewel dictionary
- Sound sample op Krieewelsch of the language department at the Institute for Regional Studies and Regional History at the Rhineland Regional Council
- Georg Cornelissen in: Heribert Houben (Hrsg.): Krefeld - The history of the city. Volume 5. Krefeld, Krefeld 2010, ISBN 978-3-9808235-7-9 , p. 666.
- Willy Hermes: Krieewelsch van A bes Z. van Acken, Krefeld 1978, ISBN 3-923140-03-7 .
- Johannes Werner: Lexicon of the old Krefelder Platt. Words, phrases, idioms, their meaning and origin. Published by the city of Krefeld, edited by Paula Coerper-Becker (= Krefeld city archive: Krefelder Studies. 13). van Acken, Krefeld 2004, ISBN 3-923140-91-6 .
- Klaus Otten-Krüll Castle: Krefeld town clerk Platt - texts of a Krefelders over the Krefeld and Krefeld dialect . Klaus Otten, Krefeld 1991, OCLC 1106687358 , p. 77 f. (“Platt en Sofia”).
- cited in Krieewelche Pappköpp - Jrillaschtaat krieewelsche-pappkoepp.de
- quoted from: Et es bi alles ene Wi-et , a list of references to Krefeld poems by Heinz Webers, Krefeld 2004.
- Kurt Hausmann, Ursula Versteegen, Theo Versteegen: "Krieewelsch op de Reeh jebreit" - short grammar of the Krefeld dialect. Krefeld 2005, p. 13.
- Kurt Hausmann, Ursula Versteegen, Theo Versteegen: "Krieewelsch op de Reeh jebreit" - short grammar of the Krefeld dialect . Krefeld 2005, p. 14 and 34 f.
- Kurt Hausmann, Ursula Versteegen, Theo Versteegen: "Krieewelsch op de Reeh jebreit" - short grammar of the Krefeld dialect . Krefeld 2005, p. 11.
- Willy Hermes: "Krieewelsch van A bes Z" . van Acken, Krefeld 1978, ISBN 3-923140-03-7 , p. 190.
Available in printed form and online as a PDF at http://www.krieewelsch.de/sites/mundartliteratur-der-stadtbuecherei-krefeld.pdf In
2007 the list names around 150 monographs, around 10 sound carriers and 8 magazine titles.
- Around 150 authors, many with reading samples, are listed in the book: Verein für Heimatkunde Krefeld e. V. (Ed.): Dialect in Krefeld, jedeit - jeseit - jeschrieeve . van Acken, Krefeld 2007, ISBN 978-3-923140-95-4 .