Larch soft deafwood
|Larch soft deafwood|
The larch soft-blubber ( Russula laricina )
The larch soft Täubling or Multifarious Täubling ( Russula laricina ) is a fungal art from the family of Täublingsverwandten (Russulaceae). It is a small, rather fragile blubber with a very variably colored hat, which can be purple, pink or reddish, with greenish hues often mixed in. The almost odorless meat tastes mild and gray rather than yellow. The lamellae are ocher yellow when ripe and the spore powder is yolk yellow. The fruiting bodies of the in principle edible pigeon appear in late summer and autumn mostly under larches, but sometimes also under spruce and fir trees. In Germany, the fungus that occurs predominantly in the Alps is very rare.
The hat is 3–5 (7) cm wide, hemispherical when young but soon spread out and later depressed to deepened in a funnel shape. The hat skin is smooth, silky, shiny and very variable in color. The spectrum ranges from dark wine-brown to pink-brown to yellow or gray-ocher. There are also greenish tones or purple with dark olive-brown tones. In the flavida ( Cooke ) Bon variety , the cap is yellow in color. The hat skin can sometimes become wrinkled with age and can be peeled off almost completely. The young, smooth edge of the hat is later more or less grooved.
The dense and young whitish lamellae quickly turn an intense ocher yellow. They are 4–7 mm wide, often forked and narrow to almost free on the stem. The lamellar edges are smooth and the spore powder is colored intensely yellow ( IVc – d according to Romagnesi ).
The cylindrical to club-shaped stem is 3–6 (8) cm long and 0.8–1.5 cm wide. It is full when young, but soon stuffed and later hollow. The surface is smooth and whitish when it is young, but later it is weakly longitudinally veined and can sometimes turn gray in the course of development. With age, the stalk is more or less dirty white to yellowish gray.
The rounded spores are (7.5) 8–9.5 µm long and (6) 6.2–7.5 µm wide. The Q value (quotient of spore length and width) is 1.1–1.2. The spore ornament is 0.8 (1.0) µm high and consists of isolated, partially burr-like elongated or more or less paired fused warts that are finely connected in places. The hillock is amyloid .
The cylindrical to club-shaped and four-pored basidia are up to 32–45 (50) µm long and 9–13 µm wide. The numerous, 32–75 µm long and 6–9 µm wide cheilocystidia are spindle-shaped to club-shaped and mostly rounded at the tip. The less common pleurocystids are also spindle-shaped and more or less pointed at the tip. They measure 45–63 × 11–13 µm. All cystides do not stain with sulfobenzaldehyde or only stain slightly gray-black in places.
The cap skin ( Pileipellis ) consists of cylindrical, mostly branched and septate 2.5-4.0 µm wide, hair-like hyphae , which can be partially tapered towards the tip. In between there are cylindrical to clubbed, sometimes two to three times septate, 4–8 µm wide pileocystids that turn gray-black in sulfobenzaldehyde.
The very variable larch soft deaf can easily be confused with two closely related species, with the grooved soft deaf ( R. nauseosa ) and with the pine soft deaf ( R. cessans ). The three types are most easily distinguishable from one another microscopically. The grooved soft deafbling also has mild-tasting meat and occurs in comparable locations in mountain coniferous forests. However, it is mainly tied to spruce. It has slightly larger spores (7–10 (–11.4) × 6.2–8) with longer, 1–1.2 µm long warts, which are arranged almost completely isolated and prickly. The pine-soft-deaf, on the other hand, has spores (7.5–9.2 (11.5) × 6.5–7.5 (8.5)) with almost hemispherical, up to 1 µm high warts, which are mostly burr- are networked. While the larch soft-deaf ling has spores ((7.5) 8–9.5 × (6) 6.2–7 (7.5)) that are neither reticulate nor purely isolated prickly. In addition, the pine blubber has stronger fruiting bodies, which are mainly found in acidic pine forests.
As a mycorrhizal fungus, the larch soft-deaf dwarf mainly enters into a symbiotic partnership with larches, but firs and spruces can also serve as hosts. The Täubling is therefore preferably found in montane to subalpine mountain conifer forests with spruce and larch, but also in coniferous tree plantations in the lowlands. The fungus likes neutral to slightly acidic, fresh and more or less lime-rich soils. The fruiting bodies usually appear in late summer to autumn.
The larch soft-blubber occurs in North Asia (Russia-Far East) and Europe. It is a boreal to temperate or montane to subalpine species. The species is found in Northern Europe (Norway, Sweden, Finland) and the Alpine states in Central Europe. In Western Europe, the deafbling is largely absent and occurs only in the French Alpine region.
The species is very rare in Germany and restricted to the south of Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria. There are also isolated records from Schleswig-Holstein and North Rhine-Westphalia. The Täubling is quite common in Austria and common in Switzerland.
The larch soft deafness was first described in 1920 by the Czech mycologist J. Velenovský in his work " České houby " (Czech mushrooms). The species attribute ( epithet ) " laricina " is derived from the Latin " larix " (larch), the most important mycorrhizal tree of the deaf.
Bon puts the Täubling in its subsection Laricinae (Romagn.) Bon , which is within the Tenellae section . In Romagnesi the taxon Laricinae has the rank of a section and is in the sub- section Tenellula Romagn. The representatives of the section have an intensely yellow spore powder, brittle and not or only little yellowing flesh and form a mycorrhiza with conifers. The hat color is very variable and the stems can sometimes be a little gray.
From Russula laricina two varieties are known. 1987 Bon assigned the yellow-capped variety R. nauseosa var. Flavida described by Cooke as R. laricina var. Flavida to the larch soft-blubbery. Other mycologists consider the variety to be synonymous with Russula acetolens , the glossy yellow yolk deaf .
The second, carmine-red variety is R. laricina var. Ruberrima (Romagn.) Kühner & Romagn. , which Romagnesi had described in 1950 as an independent species R. ruberrima ( carmine-red soft- deadening ). This variety is now considered by most mycologists as a separate species.
The mild-tasting Täubling is considered edible.
- Josef Velenovský: České houby . Vol .: 1. Prague 1920, p. 148-49 (Czech, cybertruffle.org.uk/ ).
- Russula laricina. Monographic Key to European Russulas (1988). In: The Russulales website w3.uwyo.edu. P. 55 , archived from the original on July 28, 2010 ; Retrieved June 19, 2012 .
- Josef Breitenbach, Fred Kränzlin (Ed.): Pilze der Schweiz. Contribution to knowledge of the fungal flora in Switzerland. Volume 6: Russulaceae. Milklings, deafblings. Mykologia, Luzern 2005, ISBN 3-85604-060-9 , p. 192.
- Alfred Einhellinger : The genus Russula in Bavaria . In: Bibliotheca Mycologica . 3. Edition. tape 112 . Berlin / Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-443-59056-X , p. 106, 244 .
- German Josef Krieglsteiner (ed.), Andreas Gminder , Wulfard Winterhoff: Die Großpilze Baden-Württemberg . Volume 2: Stand mushrooms: inguinal, club, coral and stubble mushrooms, belly mushrooms, boletus and deaf mushrooms. Ulmer, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-8001-3531-0 , p. 513.
- Database of mushrooms in Austria. In: austria.mykodata.net. Austrian Mycological Society, accessed June 19, 2012 .
- Worldwide distribution of Russula laricina. (No longer available online.) In: GBIF Portal / data.gbif.org. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; Retrieved June 19, 2012 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Mushroom Distribution Atlas - Germany. In: Pilzkartierung 2000 Online / brd.pilzkartierung.de. Retrieved September 19, 2012 .
- Russula laricina. Pilzoek database, accessed September 19, 2012 .
- Matthias Lüderitz: The large mushrooms Schleswig-Holstein - Red List. (PDF [880 KB]) Volume 3 Non-leaf mushrooms (Aphyllophorales) Deaf and milk lice (Russulales). In: Umweltdaten.landsh.de. State Office for Nature and the Environment of Schleswig-Holstein, 2001, accessed on June 21, 2012 .
- Ludwig Simon among others: Red list and species directory of the Sprödblättler - Russulales - in North Rhine-Westphalia. (PDF [50 KB]) (No longer available online.) In: lanuv.nrw.de. Ministry of Environment and Forests Rhineland-Palatinate, 2009, archived from the original on December 3, 2013 ; Retrieved June 21, 2012 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Distributionof mushrooms in Switzerland. (No longer available online.) In: wsl.ch. Federal Research Institute for Forests, Snow and Landscape WSL, archived from the original on October 15, 2012 ; Retrieved June 21, 2012 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Karl Ernst Georges: Comprehensive Latin-German concise dictionary . tape 1 . Hanover 1913, Sp. 568 ( online ).
- Original Latin diagnosis by Russula sect. Laricinae. (No longer available online.) In: mtsn.tn.it. Formerly in the original ; Retrieved June 21, 2012 (Latin). ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Russulales News / Taxa DB [results] . In: mtsn.tn.it . Retrieved on June 21, 2012. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Russula laricina var. Flavida . In: de.mycobank.org . Retrieved June 21, 2012.
- Russula laricina var. Ruberrima . Retrieved June 21, 2012.
- mushrooms. The list contains the mushrooms classified as edible by the French Society for Mycology. Retrieved June 20, 2012 .