Landschulheim Herrlingen

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The Landschulheim Herrlingen was a reform educational institution founded by the sisters Clara Weimersheimer (1883–1963) and Anna Essinger (1879–1960) in 1926 with the support of other siblings in Herrlingen , which Anna Essinger relocated to Otterden ( Lage ) in Great Britain in 1933 and continued there as the Bunce Court School with many students who came with them from Germany . The part of the students who remained in Germany was led by Hugo Rosenthal (born December 14, 1887 in Lage / Lippe ; † December 6, 1980 in Haifa ) until 1939 as the "Jüdisches Landschulheim Herrlingen". For Hildegard Feidel-Mertz , the Landschulheim Herrlingen and the resulting Bunce Court School are among the most significant examples of the suppression of educational progress by the National Socialists and thus one of the most important of the schools in exile that were driven out of Germany .

The site of the former school home in Herrlingen (Blaustein) (Germany)
The site of the former school home in Herrlingen (Blaustein)
Localization of Germany in Germany
Herrlingen in Baden-Württemberg

The history of the Landschulheims Herrlingen

Since 1912 Clara Weimersheimer has been running a children's home in Herrlingen for children who are difficult to bring up, mentally problematic and also backward children.

In 1925, both her biological children and many foster children were at an age at which a decision had to be made about their further education. Since Weimersheimer did not consider the state school system to be suitable for this, the idea of ​​founding his own country school home arose . Her brothers Fritz and Willi Essinger bought another piece of land near Clara Weimersheimer's house on which the new school was to be built. She found the teacher Ludwig Wunder, who had left the Walkemühle rural education home , which he co-founded, in 1924 as the leader .

There are different stories about Wunder’s activities in Herrlingen. Often there is a hint that he was the founder of the country school home there or founded a country school in Herrlingen. For example, the “Landeskundlichen Informationssystem für Baden-Württemberg” (LEO-BW) states: “1925 Founding of the Herrlingen Landerziehungsheim near Ulm together with Claire Weimersheimer.” A few paragraphs further: “Wunder then made a second attempt to found a school in Herrlingen Ulm. Together with Claire Weimersheimer (1883-1963) he wanted to convert their children's home there into a rural education home in the spring of 1925. But this project failed due to funding. [...] Wunder transferred his plans to the Beeghof near Crailsheim in the summer of 1925 and to Michelbach Castle, an uninhabited late Renaissance castle, in the autumn of 1926. "

Sara Giebeler also mentions a rural education home in Herrlingen founded by Wunder, and then continues: “Wunder was supposed to found and manage a school attached to the children's home. The leadership should be based on the new educational reform principles, it should initially be an experimental school. However, this attempt failed just six weeks after the permission for this school was granted. The reasons for this were not entirely clear. Probably there were personal problems behind it, because everything was financially secured by the Essinger brothers. ”Wunder’s departure from the Walkenmühle was also based on more personal reasons.

The idea was then realized with family support, especially Anna Essinger.

Anna Essinger had been trained as a teacher in the USA and therefore had the skills to run a school. She and Clara Weimersheimer were supported by a third sister, Paula Essinger (* 1892 - † 1975). She had experience in nursing and housekeeping and had gained experience in raising difficult children in a private Berlin household. Paula was supposed to work as a housemother in the Herrlingen country school home. Later, in England, the fourth sister, Bertha Kahn, who had founded the children's home “Le chalet” near Grenoble after 1933, joined them. Like Paula, she became the housemother of the Bunce Court School.

Just as important for the success of the project was the support from the aforementioned brothers Fritz and Willi Essinger, who provided the financial backing. Little more is known about Willi Essinger than that he gave a speech on June 2, 1960 at the grave of his sister Anna. Fritz Essinger was probably born in 1888. After Sara Giebeler, it was he who “made his father's company (presumably an insurance office) a success”. Apart from the repeated mention of his role in the financing of the school buildings, he only reappeared in 1939 when he tried to sell them. At that time, however, he was no longer living in Germany. In his memoirs, Pinchas Erlanger reports that the relatives Fritz and Hanna Essinger, born in Ramat Gan near Tel Aviv , who have lived since 1938 . Herrmann, “ would have helped him to obtain an entry visa to Palestine . In Palestine, he probably worked in the insurance industry again, as a report in The Palestine Gazette on March 21, 1940 suggests. There it is reported that an "Insurance and financial agency" was founded on February 6, 1940 by Fritz Essinger from Ramat Gan and Julius Kahn from Tel Aviv.

Anna Essinger prepared for the start-up by visiting other rural education centers, including the Odenwald School . She also got to know Käthe Hamburg (see below). Apparently Anna Essinger did not want to take on responsibility for the project on her own at that time, because a suitable headmaster was still being sought. For this purpose, the study assessor Wilhelm Geyer was found, who “was given permission on January 19, 1926 to set up a private experimental school”. Together with him, Anna and Paula Essinger published the brochure “The Herrlingen Landschulheim should be opened at Easter 1926” shortly before the construction work for the new school building was completed.

On May 1, 1926, the Herrlingen country school home was actually opened in a new building at Wippinger Steige 28 (today: Erwin-Rommel-Steige 50 ) ( location ). Erich Mendelsohn , whose daughter Esther was in the care of Clara Weimersheimer ("Weimersheimermümchen") in 1925, was apparently also involved in the building history of the house . In a letter dated 11/12 In July 1925, he wrote to his wife Luise, who was on a cure in St. Moritz : “The Herrlingen Landerziehungsheim is not being built, but is moving to Oberherrlingen Castle [...]. Happiness for Mrs. W. "

But a new building was built, and it was financed by Fritz Essinger. Prominent guests appeared at the opening, such as Theodor Heuss and the Württemberg Ministerialrat and later co-founder of the Reich Representation of German Jews , Otto Hirsch . The mayors of Ulm and Göppingen were also present .

The country school home under Anna Essinger's direction

The newly founded Landschulheim was the first educational reform facility in Württemberg , and the new building erected for this purpose ( 48 ° 25 ′ 11.1 ″  N , 9 ° 53 ′ 26.7 ″  E ), a wooden structure, contained many things that were not taken for granted at the time Facilities:

“There is a bath and laundry room on every floor with constant hot water. There is also hot water heating in every room.
The children are accommodated in three- to four-bed rooms on the top floor. Each room has beautiful lacquer furniture, matching curtains and hand-woven blankets. The furnished staff rooms are also on this floor.
On the first floor there are the classrooms and a large hall that can be used for both dining and cultural activities. Concerts and festivals are held in this hall, as well as theater plays.
The modern kitchen, which is equipped with the latest appliances, is located on the ground floor. "

It started with 18 children between the ages of six and twelve, but the number of students grew very quickly. As a result, another house had to be rented as early as 1928, the Breitenfels house at Wippinger Steige 13, which was then purchased in 1932. The art historian and poet Gertrud Kantorowicz had previously lived in this house from 1921 to 1926 . This house, which was extended in 1929 with an extension to the associated gatekeeper or gardener house, experienced an eventful history in the following years. " During the days of the Landschulheim, it was referred to as 'Haus Breitenfels' or 'Martin-Buber-Haus' and, from 1943 to 1945, also as ' Rommel Villa' because it housed the Field Marshal's family ."

The main building of the Herrlingen country school home, 2007, with the information board created in 1988
Information board at the main building of the former country school home

Anna Essinger oriented herself towards reform pedagogy and Montessori pedagogy . A primary school teacher, Miss Römer, was primarily responsible for the latter from 1930:

"With her help, Anna Essinger wants to gradually convert the elementary school with its now 30 students to the Montessori method. Approval for this has been granted. Miss Römer had taught in elementary school for seven years and then used the Montessori method for another three years. Most recently she was at the Reformschule Frankfurt a. M. active. "

Anna Essinger attached great importance to living, experiencing and learning together. Everyone, whether teacher or student, should feel responsible to the community. Coeducation was practiced in Herrlingen . You were a matter of course between the teachers and students who lived in the home . The children learned two languages ​​at the same time from the first day of school: English and German or French and German, with an emphasis on the spoken, not the written, word.

Great emphasis was placed on physical exercise and hygiene. Learning was more of a lived learning, be it during the daily runs in the forest, through the offices that the students held in and around the house, or even while eating: There were special dining tables such as the English and French table at those during the Meals were communicated in the respective language. The arts education was also particularly emphasized. In addition to painting, drawing and handicrafts, music, singing and theater were also offered, "and the theoretical knowledge of the morning lessons was then put into practice in the afternoon."

How much the technical and artistic skills of the children were promoted through a close interlinking of theoretical and practical training is illustrated by the example of the “boy house”. It “was built as a joint project by teachers and students in 1932, with the help of skilled workers.” This house at Wippinger Steige 11 was also known as the “House of Lords”. After its completion, only the older boys and a teacher lived in it, despite the co-education that was practiced.

A special feature was that the usual grading system was not used. Instead, assessments were made that provided information about the individual development of each child. The pupils received these verbally, the parents in writing. And in contrast to the state school, the children were not taught in classes, but in groups, with individual subjects being taught in full or double hours in different periods. The groups each comprised two to three years. For belonging to a group, the developmental maturity was crucial, so that the students could help each other and set an example. The teacher remained in the position of advisor but took a back seat in class while the students were left with the initiative. You should work as independently as possible. "

Anna Essinger came from a Jewish family and has been associated with the Quakers since her stay in the USA . Before 1933, however, religion only played a subordinate role in the Landschulheim - even in view of the fact that up until then around two thirds of the children were of Christian faith and one third of Jewish faith. This relationship was reversed after the so-called seizure of power , because the Christian children were de-registered from school by their parents. But even this did not make the school a Jewish school. This step was only taken after Anna Essinger's emigration, in which the facility that remained in Herrlingen was consciously (and by necessity) continued as the Jewish rural school home under Hugo Rosenthal . Anna Essinger also stuck to her concept of religious neutrality at the successor institution she founded, the Bunce Court School , which she criticized from those who would have preferred a strengthening of Jewish identity.

The teaching staff

The school concept suggests that it would hardly have been possible with conventionally trained teachers. For this reason, predominantly very young teachers were employed, whereby “it was not just specialist knowledge [...] that was decisive for a job, but interest in the holistic education of the children. [...] Up to the closure of the country school home, around 46 teachers worked there. "

The pay at the country school home was egalitarian - certainly also due to the tense material circumstances, but also out of conviction: “All employees in the country school home, teachers, housemothers, gardeners and the cook received the same salary. It should be made clear to the children that physical and mental work have the same value. "

Between 1926 and 1933 about 46 teachers were employed at the Landschulheim. Information about some of them can be found at Sara Giebeler:

  • Wilhelm Geyer as the first educational director has already been mentioned. He left, probably because of his disagreement with Anna Essinger. He was succeeded
  • Karl Henninger, who started out as a technical headmaster in 1928. "But it did not stay that way for long, because in April of the same year Anna Essinger, who until then had been the economic director of the school, took over the office of headmistress."
  • Miss Römer as a Montessori specialist has also already been mentioned.
  • The religion teacher Martin Schwarz was just as involved in the secret emigration campaign as Hanna Bergas (see below).
  • Ruth Hamburg, Käthe Hamburg's sister, had a music room in the Breitenfels house, which probably means that she also taught music. If Giebeler mentions elsewhere, however, “that the music lessons were given by a real musician”, it remains open whether it was Ruth Hamburg.
  • Giebeler also mentions two “junior teachers” from Geyer's time, Karl Schramm and Leonhard Wolfmeyer. The latter is possibly the teacher and local group leader Leonhard Wolfmeyer, who was hanged in 1945 as one of the men from Brettheim who disarmed some of the Hitler Youths.

Käthe Hamburg

Käthe Hamburg (1893–1951) “was born as the daughter of a Russian Jewish doctor in Berlin. After graduating from high school, she studied mathematics and philosophy in Berlin, Freiburg and Marburg. In 1914 she passed her teacher examination. Until 1917 she worked in a military hospital and then took over the management of the infirmary at the Odenwald School Paul Geheebs . This was her first encounter with life in a reform educational country school home. ”From 1921 to 1927 she ran a children's home in Oberwiehl in the Black Forest. From there she moved in 1927 “to Herrlingen. She too did not want any state school education for her seven foster children. Because she taught free of charge as a mathematician and philosopher at the Landerziehungsheim, her protégés could go to school there without having to pay school fees. "

Käthe Hamburg's children's home existed until 1939. She organized the safe accommodation of her protégés and made it possible for the only Jewish foster child to leave for Palestine. Supported by the Quakers, she emigrated to England herself. At first she worked in a household, which made her feel overwhelmed. Following this activity, she went to the Bunce Court School, where she worked as a housemother and teacher from 1940 to 1942. “In 1942 she took over the management of a Quaker refugee home in Manchester . From 1947 until her death on January 1, 1951, she worked in a Quaker retirement home in Gerrards Cross near London

Hanna Bergas

Hanna Bergas (born March 11, 1900 - † January 11, 1987) came to the school shortly before the country school home was relocated to England and played a key role in organizing the relocation and in setting up the Bunce Court School.

Adolf Prague

He is mentioned by Feidel-Mertz: “In both old and new Herrlingen, Dr. Adolf Prag exerted some pedagogical influence as a math teacher before receiving a professorship at Cambridge . "

Adolf Prag (born June 27, 1906 in Baden-Oos - † March 27, 2004 in Oxford) grew up in Frankfurt am Main, where his family moved soon after his birth. Prague attended the Goethe-Gymnasium here and then studied mathematics from 1925 to 1929 at the still young Frankfurt University . In 1929 he passed the state examination for teaching, for which he submitted a highly acclaimed mathematical-historical work on the Oxford mathematician John Wallis .

Prague completed a two-year legal traineeship. Because as a Jew he saw no chance of permanent employment in the civil service, he decided in 1931 to accept Anna Essinger's offer and start as an assessor in Herrlingen. In 1933 he went to the Bunce Court School and was later deputy headmaster there.

At the Bunce Court School Adolf Prag met Frede Warburg (born November 23, 1904 in Hamburg; † May 12, 2004 in Oxford), who had also emigrated. The PhD in English was the daughter of Aby Warburg and Mary Warburg . Prague and Warburg married on November 19, 1938. Fredes brother, Max Adolph Warburg , was a teacher at the Quaker School Eerde at the time .

On June 19, 1940, the Prague couple were interned on the Isle of Man . After his release, Adolf Prag taught for several years in English schools before he got a permanent position at the Westminster School in London in 1946 . Their library offered him diverse material for further mathematical-historical studies. He continued this scientific work after his retirement in 1966.

Adolf Prag, who had studied under Max Dehn with Ruth Moufang and Hans Heinrich Wilhelm Magnus in Frankfurt , maintained these early contacts throughout his life, and since 1965 he has also been a regular guest and lecturer at the Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach . Emil Fellmann acknowledged its importance for mathematics in an obituary: “In apparent contradiction to the - outwardly - sparse of its list of publications […], Prague's effectiveness for the history of mathematics was of unusual fertility - a fact that everyone is aware of who is highly likeable , very humble and always helpful people. The numerically small opus number can easily be explained by the Nazis' seizure of power in Germany, which forced A. Prag (as a Jew) into emigration. "

Student body

In the seven years of its existence, the Herrlingen country school home was attended by a total of 223 children. Little is known about them either. The most prominent pupil is generally considered to be Wolfgang Leonhard , who attended school in 1932. Sara Giebeler outlines the composition of the student body:

“As already mentioned, the children of the Klar Weimersheimer recovery children's home went to the country school home from the start. A year later, the children of Käthe Hamburg's forest home joined them. In addition to children in the home, the country school home was also visited by boys and girls who came from so-called single-parent families, were illegitimate or were sent to Herrlingen by their parents, as they themselves often had to travel or move for professional reasons. So the children of diplomats, conductors, singers, writers, politicians, actors and musicians went to the Landschulheim. The mayor of Göppingen sent his child here, as did a rich Berlin manufacturer or an editor of the socialist forward. There were also a few children from Herrlingen themselves. The different origins of the individual children represented a particular attraction and demanded a lot from the teachers. "

In this context, the students' religious origins are also interesting. Giebeler assumes that by 1933 “a third of Jewish children and two thirds of Christian children” would have attended school. After Easter 1933 this relationship was exactly the other way round, mainly because many Christian children did not return to school after the Easter break.

Anna Essinger's first student was "Suse Felix [...], later Susanne Trachsler-Lehmann,". She is the future actress Susanne Trachsler-Lehmann (1920–2012). Her parents were the German actor Kurt Abraham and the German-Swiss teacher and operetta singer Leonie Woringer. Due to the unsteady way of life of the parents, the "little Susi [...] was pushed around and ended up in the Essinger country school home in Herrlingen. There she was Anna Essinger's pupil, who taught her “intellectual curiosity, authority without violence, respect and solidarity, the courage to think for yourself, joie de vivre, sport, foreign languages, to climb trees”. “Later the child was able to attend a Catholic girls' high school and start an acting training in Zurich. Since Susanne did not have a passport due to the complicated family situation, she had difficulties staying in Switzerland during the Second World War. After the war she was expelled from Germany by the British because she did not have a German passport, fell ill with tuberculosis and spent a time in a Swiss sanatorium. It was not until the 1950s that she was able to gain a foothold as an actress in Switzerland. She died on December 8, 2012 in Zurich. Susanne Trachsler-Lehmann wrote the souvenir book "... I am healthy and can do arithmetic ..." about her time in Herrlingen.

The end of the Herrlingen country school home

On April 1, 1933, the National Socialist government started the “ Jewish boycott ” carried out throughout Germany and thus the ousting of German Jews from public life. Anna Essinger refers to this date, even though she seems to be confusing it with January 30, 1933, the day the National Socialists came to power . In her memories from the mid-1940s, the date symbolizes the starting point for her decision to outsource the Herrlingen Landschulheim from Germany:

“When Hitler took power in Germany on April 1st, 1933, many people believed that this type of regime could not last long. At that time we had a school in the Swabian Alb near the Danube Valley. We had many friends in the village, but everything that happened in Germany on April 1, 1933 was echoed even in this remote place. Germany no longer seemed to me to be a place where children could be raised honestly and freely, and I decided at that time to look for another home for our school. Research was carried out first in Switzerland, then in Holland, and in June I came to England for the first time. I already had a few friends here and made new ones. After consulting many people, it was decided to move the school to England. Neither the Ministry of Education nor the Ministry of Labor raised an objection, and the Ministry of the Interior gave the necessary approval. "

In order not to cause a stir in Germany, the campaign was well prepared and coordinated with the end of the summer vacation in 1933: After the vacation in summer 1933, the students did not return to Herrlingen. At various locations in Germany, 65 children gathered in three groups disguised as a class trip. They met in Ostend, Belgium, and crossed to Dover on October 5, 1933. The next day, classes began in "New Herrlingen", later called "Bunce Court". The school then existed in various locations until 1948.

The six adults who accompanied the children included Anna Essinger's sister Paula, the religion teacher Martin Schwarz and Hanna Bergas. For Bergas, too, April 1, 1933 was the decisive date from which everything changed. Her memories begin with the sentence: “Everyone in Germany knew that on April 1, 1933, the laws of National Socialism were to be implemented. On that day we experienced the force and speed with which it happened. "

The Jewish school home in Herrlingen

Anna Essinger not only had the continued existence of her country school home in England in view, but also thought of what she had to leave behind in Germany. She did not close the school, but applied for it to continue as a Jewish private school. She received permission from the Ministry for this and “found a new headmaster in the Zionist-oriented pedagogue Hugo Rosenthal, who continued the school as a Jewish country school home from October 1933.” This is how the story of the “Jewish country school home in Herrlingen” begins.


  • Lucie Schachne: Education for spiritual resistance. The Jewish Landschulheim Herrlingen 1933 to 1939. dipa-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1986, ISBN 978-3-7638-0509-9 .
  • Since 1985 there has been the “Landschulheime Herrlingen Working Group” under the umbrella of the “Haus unterm regenbogen” association. Several publications have emerged from this work:
    • Dietrich Winter: Herrlingen as a literary and historical place , Klemm and Oelschläger, Ulm, 1998, ISBN 978-3-932577-12-3 .
    • Kurt Bergel and Wolfgang Keim: Contributions to Jewish education , Klemm and Oelschläger, Ulm, 1999, ISBN 978-3-932577-18-5 .
    • Sara Giebeler, Axel Holtz, Peter Wilhelm A. Schmidt, Susanne Trachsler-Lehmann: Profiles of Jewish pedagogues , Klemm and Oelschläger, Ulm, 2000, ISBN 978-3-932577-23-9 . In particular:
      • Sara Giebeler: The Herrlingen country school home - founded by Anna Essinger , pp. 40–74.
      • Susanne Trachsler-Lehmann: My time with Anna Essinger , pp. 75–79.
    • Susanne Trachsler-Lehmann: "... I am healthy and can do arithmetic ..." Letters from a schoolgirl from the Jewish school home Anna Essinger , Klemm and Oelschläger, Ulm, 2001, ISBN 978-3-932577-34-5 .
    • Heinz Krus (Ed.): "... but unforgettable for a lifetime ..." The Herrlingen country school homes - memories and documents , Klemm and Oelschläger, Ulm, 2001, ISBN 978-3-932577-35-2 .
    • Dietrich Winter: Herrlingen. Encounters with extraordinary personalities , Klemm and Oelschläger, Ulm, 2011, ISBN 978-3-86281-016-1 .
    • Linde Otto: Gertrud Laupheimer. On life and survival in the small Lautertal , Klemm and Oelschläger, Ulm, 2014, ISBN 978-3-86281-014-7 .
    • Angela Rammstedt: Gertrud Kantorowicz and Herrlingen , Klemm and Oelschläger, Ulm, 2016, ISBN 978-3-86281-096-3 .
  • Ulrich Seemüller: The Jewish old people's home in Herrlingen and the fate of its residents , Süddeutsche Verlags-Gesellschaft, Ulm, 2009, ISBN 978-3-88294-403-7 .
  • Anna Essinger: The Bunce Court School (1933-1943) , in: Hildegard Feidel-Mertz (Ed.): Schools in Exile. Repressed pedagogy after 1933 . rororo, Reinbek, 1983, ISBN 3-499-17789-7 , pp. 71-88.
  • Hildegard Feidel-Mertz (translation: Andrea Hammel): Integration and Formation of Identity: Exile Schools in Great Britain , in: Shofar. An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies, Volume 23, Number 1, Fall 2004, pp. 71-84.
  • Hildegard Feidel-Mertz : Education in exile after 1933. Education for survival. Pictures at an exhibition . dipa publishing house, Frankfurt am Main, 1990, ISBN 3-7638-0520-6 .
  • Hildegard Feidel-Mertz (updated version: Hermann Schnorbach): The Pedagogy of the Landerziehungsheime in Exile , in: Inge Hansen-Schaberg (Ed.): Landerziehungsheim-Pädagogik , new edition, Reform pedagogical school concepts, Volume 2, Schneider Verlag Hohengehren GmbH, Baltmannsweiler, 2012 , ISBN 978-3-8340-0962-3 , pp. 183-206.
  • Hanna Bergas: Fifteen Years - Lived among, With and For Refugee Children , Palo Alto (California), 1979

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Biography of Ludwig Wunder in the regional information system for Baden-Württemberg (LEO-BW)
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l Sara Giebeler: Das Landschulheim Herrlingen - founded by Anna Essinger , in: Sara Giebeler et al .: Profiles Jewish pedagogues , pp. 40–74
  4. ^ House under the rainbow e. V. (Hrsg.): Pedagogy Deportation Literature. Herrlingen 1912–1947
  5. Anna Essinger on
  6. Anna Essinger's curriculum vitae on the website of the Anna-Essinger-Gymnasium in Ulm
  7. Pinchas Erlanger: Memories. My youth in Germany and the emigration to Palestine. Laupheim Talks, 2001 , p. 1 and p. 7
  8. ^ The Palestine Gazette, No. 995, Thursday, March 21st, 1940, p. 350
  9. This is what he called her in 1925 in a letter poem to his daughter. EMA - Erich Mendelsohn Archive: The correspondence between Erich and Luise Mendelsohn 1910-1953 (transcript)
  10. ^ EMA - Erich Mendelsohn Archive: The correspondence between Erich and Luise Mendelsohn 1910-1953
  11. Ulrich Seemüller: Herrlingen in the focus of history
  12. Ulrich Seemüller: The Jewish Retirement Home Herrlingen and the Fates of Its Residents , Gemeinde Blaustein, 1997, p. 13. On pages 13 and 14, the book contains good photographs of the three houses that made up the ensemble of the rural school home (main building Wippinger Steige 28, Adjacent building Wippinger Steige 11 and House Breitenfels, Wippinger Steige 13).
  13. a b c d e Ruth Fichtner: Place of remembrance Landschulheime Herrlingen
  14. a b c d e f g h House under the rainbow e. V. (Hrsg.): Pedagogy Deportation Literature. Herrlingen 1912–1947
  15. Leslie Baruch Brent: A Sunday Child? - From a Jewish orphanage to a world-famous immunologist . Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-8305-1702-3 , p. 76
  16. On the history of Jewish institutions in Herrlingen in the 20th century . Fichtner writes, however, that she moved from the Odenwald to Herrlingen in 1927.
  17. Lucie Schachne: Education for Spiritual Resistance , p. 124
  18. a b Hanna Bergas: Fifteen Years - Lived among, With and For Refugee Children , Palo Alto (California), 1979
  19. Hildegard Feidel-Mertz (Ed.): Schools in Exile , p. 71
  20. a b c d e Christoph J. Scriba: In Memoriam Adolf Prag (1906-2004)
  21. ^ Emil A. Fellmann: In Memoriam Adolf Prag (1906-2004)
  22. a b c Halina Pichit: Susanne Trachsler-Lehmann (1920 - 2012) actress . In: Zurich City Archives, Annual Report 2011/2012, p. 153 ff.
  23. Anna Essinger: Die Bunce Court School (1933–1943) , p. 72. The term "friends" that Essinger uses here is ambiguous, especially since the original text was written in English. It can be taken for granted that the friends from the “Religious Society of Friends” were often referred to, ie the Quakers . See: Hildegard Feidel-Mertz (translation: Andrea Hammel): Integration and Formation of Identity .
  24. Remembrance work in Herrlingen