Manuel Mora Valverde

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Manuel Mora Valverde (born August 27, 1909 in San José (Costa Rica) ; † December 29, 1994 ibid) was General Secretary of the Vanguardia Popular (Communist Party) in Costa Rica .


Manuel Mora Valverde was born into a middle class family, the firstborn with twelve siblings. His parents were Lydia Valverde and José Rafael Mora, masters in the public works office under the government of his friend Alfredo González Flores (1914–1917). At the age of nine, Manuel Mora Valverde emigrated to Nicaragua with a group of friends to join the armed opposition to Federico Alberto Tinoco Granados .

He attended the Juan Rudín elementary school and the Liceo de Costa Rica high school , he showed good performance in the exact sciences. When he graduated from high school in 1927, Fidel Tristán, the director of the Liceo de Costa Rica , offered him a scholarship from Luis Dobles Segreda, then Minister of Education, to study mathematics in Paris. Mora declined the scholarship. He studies at the Escuela de Derecho . There Mario Echandí Jiménez became his friend and in 1940 he graduated as a lawyer.

With his admission as a lawyer, he became involved on the side of the destitute. Ricardo Jiménez, Alberto Echandí and General Jorge Volio Jiménez from the Partido Reformista ran for the presidential election in 1924 . Mora campaigned for General Jorge Volio Jiménez to be elected.

In 1931 Mora was a founding member of the Partido de Obreros y Campesinos and in 1933 he was elected a member of parliament for this party, to which office he was re-elected until 1948.

La Gran Huelga bananera del Atlántico de 1934

In 1934 the banana workers and Carlos Luis Fallas went on strike in the Zona Atlantica near Puerto Limón . Mora was the defender of the banana workers.

At the beginning of 1940 his party, which had called itself Vanguardia Popular since 1943, formed a coalition with the Partido Republicano Nacional led by Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia .

Comité Antinazi de Costa Rica

During the Second World War he founded the Comité Antinazi de Costa Rica with the later Ministro de Gobernación y Policía , Fernando Valverde Vega, Francisco José Orlich Bolmarcich , Manuel Picado Chacán .

His support and that of his party contributed to the election victory of Teodoro Picado Michalski over León Cortés Castro in 1944.

El Espiritu del 1948

The electoral authority Tribunal Electoral declared Luis Rafael de la Trinidad Otilio Ulate Blanco to be the elected candidate in 1948 . However, the parliament, which was dominated by the previous government coalition, did not pass a law appointing Ulate as president, but canceled the election on March 1, 1948 because of alleged electoral fraud.

From March 12 to April 19, 1948 , around 2,000 people were killed in the 44-day civil war in Costa Rica.

The Partido Demócrata de Costa Rica used mercenaries from Panama with weapons from Guatemala, while the Partido Republicano Nacional had more confidence in mercenaries from the Dominican Republic, Honduras and the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua .

On April 19, 1948, an agreement to end the civil war was signed in the Mexican embassy in San José. On April 20, 1947, Teodoro Picado Michalski handed over his office to the third deputy Santos León Herrera .

The Vanguardia Popular was banned, Mora went to Mexico and came back to Costa Rica in 1950.

Mora married Addy Salas in 1951.

When José Figueres Ferrer changed government to Alberto Oreamuno Flores in May 1959, Mora had to go to Cuba .

1970 to 1974 Mora was again a member of parliament.

In 1970 Mora traveled to Moscow as General Secretary of Vanguardia Popular , on behalf of the Costa Rican coffee producers, and made “favorable export deals” there.

Partido del Pueblo Costarricense

In 1984, Mora was excluded from the Vanguardia Popular by Humberto Vargas Carbonell (* 1934) and founded the Partido del Pueblo Costarricense

In 1993 the Universidad de Costa Rica awarded him the Premio Rodrigo Facio . In 1994 the Universidad Estatal a Distancia (UNED) awarded him an honorary doctorate.

Individual evidence

  1. Archived copy ( Memento of the original from April 19, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  3. ^ Time , March 29, 1948, Everybody's War
  4. ^ Time , April 5, 1948, The President Is Sick
  5. ^ Time , April 19, 1948, Commissioner, San José
  6. ^ Time , May 10, 1948, Tacho's Turn?
  7. ^ Time , April 27, 1959, Upper Classmen v. Freshman
  8. ^ Neue Zürcher Zeitung , according to Da, only violence helps . In: Der Spiegel . No. 39 , 1970 ( online - Sept. 21, 1970 ).
  9. ^ The Independent , January 5, 1995, Obituaries Manuel Mora Valverde


  1. it: Jorge Volio Jiménez
  2. ^ Es : Partido Comunista Costarricense
  3. ^ Es : Carlos Luis Fallas
  4. ^ Es : Vanguardia Popular
  5. ^ Es : Partido Republicano Nacional
  6. ^ Es : Guerra Civil de Costa Rica
  7. ^ Es : Partido Demócrata de Costa Rica
  8. ^ Es : Partido Republicano Nacional
  9. en: Vice Presidents of Costa Rica
  10. ^ Es : Partido del Pueblo Costarricense