Mission des Nations Unies pour l'organization d'un référendum au Sahara occidental
|operation area||Western Sahara|
|German name||United Nations mission for the referendum in Western Sahara|
|English name||United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara|
|French name||Mission des Nations Unies pour l'organization d'un référendum au Sahara occidental|
|Based on UN resolution||690 (April 29 1991)|
|Other UN resolutions||2152 (April 29, 2014)
2218 (April 28, 2015)
2285 (April 29, 2016)
2351 (April 28, 2017)
2414 (April 27, 2018)
2440 (October 31, 2018)
2468 (April 30, 2019)
2494 (October 30, 2019)
|Type of mission||Peace mission|
|management||Colin Stewart Canada|
|Deaths||16 (as of January 1, 2020)|
|costs||$ 52,519,000 (July 1, 2017 - June 30, 2018)|
|Location of the operational area|
The Mission des Nations Unies pour l'organization d'un référendum au Sahara occidental , MINURSO for short ( English : United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara ) is a United Nations mission and was founded in April 1991 on the recommendation of the UN Secretary General of UN Security Council established ; the mandate includes monitoring the ceasefire in Western Sahara and holding a referendum to choose between integration into the Moroccan state and independence .
The maximum strength of the observer mission is 245 authorized military personnel (as of October 8, 2017), as well as 457 civilian employees and 15 UN volunteers.
The mandate of the mission, which has been regularly renewed due to the lack of a referendum and the still unresolved status of the territory, was last extended to April 30, 2019 on October 31, 2018 with UN Security Council resolution 2440 . Until 2018, the mandates had been extended by 1 year each - this now shorter time limit can be seen as a sign of the pressure on the conflicting parties to return to direct talks after the recent escalations in the buffer zone and a stagnating status quo.
The German Wolfgang Weisbrod-Weber was appointed on June 15, 2012 by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon as the new Special Representative for Western Sahara and Head of MINURSO. On July 31, 2014, the Canadian Kim Bolduc , most recently the United Nations Development Program Coordinator ( UNDP ) in Panama and Deputy Special Representative at the United Nations in Haiti ( MINUSTAH ), succeeded him. She was followed on December 1, 2017 by the Canadian Colin Stewart .
The authorized for the mission 12-month budget from July 2019 is 60,453,700 dollars .
|No.||Surname||nationality||Beginning of the appointment||End of appointment|
|1.||Major General Armand Roy||Canada||1991||1992|
Brigadier General Luis Block Urban
|Peru||Apr 1992||Oct 1992|
|3.||Brigadier General Andre Van Baelen||Belgium||Oct 1992||Apr 1996|
|4th||Major General Jose Garcia Leandro||Portugal||Apr 1996||Nov 1996|
|5.||Major General Jorge Barroso de Moura||Portugal||1996||1997|
|6th||Brigadier General Bernd S. Lubenik||Austria||1997||1999|
|7th||Brigadier General Claude Buze||Belgium||1999||2002|
|8th.||Major General Gyorgy Szaraz||Hungary||2002||2005|
|9.||Major General Kurt Mosgaard||Denmark||Sep 2005||2007|
|10.||Major General Zhao Jingmin||People's Republic of China||2007||July 2011|
|11.||Major General Abdul Hafiz||Bangladesh||July 2011||July 2013|
|12.||Major General Imam Edy Mulyono||Indonesia||Aug 2013||Sep 2015|
|13.||Major General Tayyab Azam||Pakistan||Sep 2015||Nov 2016|
|14th||Major General Wang Xiaojun||People's Republic of China||March 2017||Apr. 2019|
|15th||Major General Zia Ur Rehman||Pakistan||Apr. 2019|
The federal government has the participation of up to 16 October 2013, four officers of the Armed Forces decided and a UN request met on 16 September, 2013. The cabinet decision is valid until the end of the mission.
The Swiss Army participated in MINURSO from November 1991 to August 1994 with a Swiss Medical Unit (SMU) with a maximum of 85 members. On November 10, 1993, the Federal Council decided to extend the mandate of the SMU one last time to June 30, 1994. While the majority of the SMU returned to Switzerland at the end of June 1994, individual SMU members stayed on site until August 1994 to ensure the handover to South Korea, which was the medical successor to the SMU. Since July 2011, the mission has been supported by Switzerland with two demining specialists. In July 2014, the UN asked Switzerland to send unarmed military observers. The investigations by the DDPS have shown that the Swiss army has the military observers it is looking for. The Federal Council has therefore decided to support MINURSO with a maximum of six unarmed members of the army.
- MINURSO Fact sheet. United Nations Peacekeeping Force , accessed January 1, 2020 .
- MINURSO Fact Sheet. Retrieved October 19, 2018 .
- Article in the Maghreb Post of April 28, 2018
- Ban appoints UN official as head of mission on referendum in Western Sahara. UN, June 15, 2012, accessed June 23, 2016 .
- Secretary-General Appoints Kim Bolduc of Canada Special Representative, Head of United Nations Mission for Referendum in Western Sahara. UN, May 12, 2014, accessed on June 23, 2016 (English, press release SG / A / 1469-BIO / 4591-PKO / 400).
- UN Secretary-General statement of December 1, 2017
- UN Peacekeeping Fact Sheet , accessed June 21, 2020
- Current situation in the areas of operation of the Bundeswehr 42/2013. (PDF; 256 kB) Bundeswehr, accessed on June 23, 2016 .
- As a military observer in the Western Sahara. Bundeswehr, November 6, 2013, accessed on June 23, 2016 .
- admin.ch : MINURSO (West-Sahara) ( Memento from August 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- Swiss military observer for the UN mission in Western Sahara. August 20, 2014, accessed June 23, 2016 .
- Official MINURSO page (English)
- UN map of the conflict area (PDF file; 158 kB)
- Overview of all UN resolutions on Western Sahara since 1995