Mission de l'Organisation des Nations Unies en République Démocratique du Congo
|MONUSCO (until June 30, 2010: MONUC)|
|operation area||Democratic Republic of Congo|
|German name||United Nations Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (until 2010: United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo)|
|English name||United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (until 2010: United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo)|
|French name||Mission de l'Organisation des Nations unies pour la stabilization en République démocratique du Congo (until 2010: Mission de l'Organisation des Nations Unies en République Démocratique du Congo)|
|Spanish name||Misión de Estabilización de las Naciones Unidas en la República Democrática del Congo (until 2010: Misión de las Naciones Unidas en la República Democrática del Congo)|
|Based on UN resolution||1279 (November 30, 1999)|
|Other UN resolutions||1291 (February 24, 2000)
1493 (July 28, 2003)
1592 (March 30, 2005)
1635 (October 31, 2005)
2098 (March 28, 2013)
|Type of mission||Peace mission|
|Beginning||November 30, 1999|
|management||Maman Sambo Sidikou (2013–2015: Martin Kobler ; 2007–2010: Alan Doss)|
|Location of the operational area|
The United Nations Mission for Stabilization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (official French name: Mission de l'Organisation des Nations unies pour la stabilization en République démocratique du Congo ; abbreviation: MONUSCO ) is currently one of the largest peacekeeping operations of the United Nations .
Until June 30, 2010 the name was MONUC.
Established the mission in 1999
This mission was on 30 November 1999 by the Resolution 1279 of the UN Security Council launched. The occasion was the second Congo War from 1998 to 2002, in which troops from the Kabila government and various rebel groups and units from several neighboring African states faced each other. Initially, 500 military observers were deployed and the mandate was later expanded on the basis of further resolutions.
Expansion of the mission 2000–2004
On February 24, 2000 ( Resolution 1291 ) the troop strength was increased to over 5,500. The blue helmets should observe the ceasefire and facilitate the transport of aid. The basis was Chapter VII of the UN Charter . However , they did not intervene in fighting between Rwandan and Ugandan troops in Kisangani .
From 2001 onwards, the disarmament, demobilization and social reintegration of combatants was to be carried out , initially on a voluntary basis . In spring 2003, local militias carried out massacres of the civilian population in Ituri province , which MONUC was unable to prevent. Between June and September 2003, MONUC was established by Operation Artemis of EUFOR supported under French leadership. With Resolution 1493 of July 28, 2003, an arms embargo was imposed in eastern Congo and the troop strength of MONUC was increased to 10,800.
Use from 2005
Only after the MONUC had been repeatedly shot at by rebels and a number of MONUC soldiers were killed, the force was allowed to use force through a mandate under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. In resolution 1592 of March 30, 2005, MONUC was mandated to protect the civilian population with all necessary means of military force (i.e. a so-called robust mandate ) and to take action against illegal armed groups. As a result, 12,000 militia members were disarmed in Ituri.
At the end of March 2005 the troop strength was 16,700 soldiers from 49 countries. In resolution 1635 of October 31, 2005, the mandate was extended to September 30, 2006. However, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan was unable to assert himself with the demand for 2,500 additional soldiers at the UN Security Council; instead, only 300 were approved.
From July 1, 2003 to June 20, 2004, the mission had already cost $ 608.23 million; the cost for 2005 was estimated at about $ 1 billion. Up to this point in time, 87 MONUC members had died in the course of the mission.
On April 21, 2006, MONUC soldiers, together with the Congolese army , allegedly took action against the village of Kazana , where armed rebels were allegedly staying. The MONUC soldiers are said to have taken the village under mortar fire, killing 25 to 34 people. Then the soldiers of the MONUC watched as the Congolese soldiers burned the village.
On November 20, 2012, Congolese rebels of the M23 group , opponents of the Kabila government, took control of the provincial capital of Goma with a population of one million within a few hours. Neither the government army nor UN soldiers could stop them. The rebels were led by the deserted Congolese general Bosco Ntaganda , who calls himself “Terminator” and has been wanted by the International Criminal Court for war crimes since 2008 , but has lived unmolested in Goma. The advance of the rebels in eastern Congo caused up to 450,000 people to flee; the UN Security Council demanded sanctions against their leaders. Numerous development organizations had already brought their employees from the region to Rwanda to safety, and the UN, too, withdrew employees from its peacekeeping mission.
On March 28, 2013, the UN Security Council resolved in resolution 2098 to set up a brigade with an offensive mandate, the Force Intervention Brigade (FIB), consisting of 3,069 soldiers within MONUSCO . This should be able to take active action against rebel groups in the east of the Congo - alone or with the Congolese government army FARDC . With its offensive mandate and its implementation, the Force Intervention Brigade represented a novelty within the UN peace missions.
In August 2013, the German Martin Kobler took over the management for a year and a half until April 2015.
In 2014, MONUSCO and the Army of the Congo tried to develop a plan for joint action against the FDLR. This failed because Congo's President Joseph Kabila insisted on leading the army. Many of the army commanders were under investigation by the UN for involvement in war crimes; MONUSCO is not allowed to work with them. In mid-February 2015, the Congo Army began its offensive against the FDLR on its own.
The Nigerian Maman Sambo Sidikou became the head of the mission in October 2015.
On November 16, 2018 in an attack by Islamist terrorists were Ugandan Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) in Beni on peacekeepers MONUSCO six are Malawian soldiers and a Tanzanian soldier killed and ten others injured.
The MONUC / MONUSCO is criticized, among other things, because it consists for the most part of soldiers who themselves come from countries in which there is no democracy (for example Pakistan or Nepal ) and it is difficult to understand how this is in the Congo Should bring democracy. In addition, the equipment can be compared to that of a third world army.
In 2004/2005, members of MONUC were accused of sexual abuse of minors.
Pakistani soldiers allegedly engaged in illegal gold and arms trafficking with militias in Ituri, according to the BBC, and an investigation into this has been withheld for political reasons; the Pakistani government denied these allegations.
Congolese circles reported that MONUC did not protect the population, or only insufficiently, from rebels. It did not intervene in late October 2008 until thousands of civilians attacked the regional headquarters in Goma and other UN facilities with stones.
Apart from the Indian and Pakistani troops, the majority of the soldiers deployed do not have sufficient military training. Thus, Uruguay , for example, civilians for the quota who were recruited through newspaper advertisements and received two weeks of training. European soldiers are only represented at management level.
In August 2010, the UN mission was again subjected to massive criticism. The soldiers are said not to have intervened in the mass rape in Luvungi .
- HQ MONUSCO: Kinshasa
- Sector 1: Mbandaka
- Sector 2: Kisangani
- Sector 3: Kananga
- Sector 4: Kalemie
- Sector 5: Kindu
- Sector 6: Bunia
|No.||Surname||nationality||Beginning of the appointment||End of appointment||Remarks|
|1.||Major General Mountaga Diallo||Senegal||March 2000||Jan. 2004|
|2.||Major General Samaila Iliya||Nigeria||Jan. 2004||Feb. 2005|
|3.||Lieutenant General Babacar Gaye||Senegal||Feb. 2005||July 2010|
|4th||Lieutenant General Chander Prakash||India||July 2010||March 2013|
|5.||Lieutenant General Carlos Alberto dos Santos Cruz||Brazil||Apr. 2013||Dec 2015|
|6th||Lieutenant General Derrick Mgwebi||South Africa||Dec 2015||Jan. 2018|
|7th||interim: Major General Bernard Commins||France||Jan. 2018||Apr. 2018||Deputy Force Commander.|
|8th.||Lieutenant General Elias Rodrigues Martins Filho||Brazil||Apr. 2018||Dec 2019|
|9.||Lieutenant General Ricardo Augusto Ferreira Costa Neves||Brazil||Dec 2019||-|
- UN information site (English)
- UN Security Council resolutions on the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1996-2014)
- MONUSCO Fact sheet. (PDF) December 30, 2019, accessed December 30, 2019 .
- Le Soir, May 29-30, 2010
- Resolution 1279 (1999) of November 30, 1999 (German)
- AIDAN HARTLEY: Congo's Election, the UN's Massacre - NYTimes July 28, 2006
- Dominic Johnson: Democracy hero challenges Kabila. In: the daily newspaper . July 7, 2011, accessed July 11, 2011 .
- The fighting in eastern Congo intensifies. The rebels have captured parts of the city of Goma, the airport is being contested. The UN troops seem powerless - France now wants to change its mandate. - Spiegel from November 20, 2012
- Gigantic gold smuggling in the Congo , TAZ of February 8, 2011
- UN Security Council imposes sanctions against M23 rebel leaders , agency reports via Zeit Online from November 21, 2012
- S / RES / 2098 (2013). UN, 2013, accessed May 27, 2017 .
- DR Congo. UNSC , March 28, 2013, accessed March 29, 2013 .
- Security Council approves intervention force to target armed groups in DR Congo. MONUSCO , March 28, 2013, accessed March 29, 2013 .
- Spiegel of March 28, 2013: The UN Security Council has given the blue helmets in the Congo an unprecedented mandate. It allows the "Monusco" mission to take offensive action against the rebels in the east of the country for the first time.
- Doss, A .: United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) . In: JA Koops, N. MacQueen, T. Tardy, PD Williams (Eds.): The Oxford Handbook of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations . Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK 2015.
- Vogel, C .: DRC: Assessing the performance of MONUSCO's Force Intervention Brigade. African Arguments, 2014, accessed May 27, 2017 .
- Dirke Köpp: MONUSCO boss Kobler: "The Congo is a country of the future". Deutsche Welle , December 27, 2013, accessed March 3, 2015 .
- Simone Schlindwein: A little justice. the daily newspaper , February 3, 2015, accessed on March 3, 2015 .
- Maman Sambo Sidikou nommé à la tete de la Monusco. In: Radio Okapi. October 8, 2015, accessed November 29, 2015 (French).
- S / RES / 2348. (PDF) March 31, 2017, accessed on August 17, 2017 .
- UN soldiers killed in the Congo. In: Deutsche Welle . November 16, 2018, accessed November 16, 2018 .
- S / RES / 2049. (PDF) March 27, 2018, accessed November 26, 2019 .
- Sueddeutsche Zeitung: Sexual assaults by UN soldiers - abused by the guardian angel
- BBC News: UN troops 'traded gold for guns'
- BBC News: Pakistan dismisses DR Congo claim
- UN peacekeeping force in Congo attacks rebels , Neue Zürcher Zeitung, October 29, 2008
- Thomas Scheen: Concern for war between the Congo and Rwanda . In: FAZ of October 30, 2008