Pavilion style

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The green promenade separates the specialist clinics of the Rudolf Virchow Hospital in Berlin, which are located on the right and left

A period in the conception of hospital buildings from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century is referred to as a pavilion style or pavilion construction. This design should enable therapy in the hospital in small groups of patients in a green environment.

Style features and backgrounds

All buildings are functionally relatively self-sufficient and are located in a park-like environment. This decentralized structure was created with a view to a pleasant atmosphere for the patient's recovery, also corresponded to the need for autonomy of chief physicians and professors of the time around 1900 and was considered modern, trend-setting and more advantageous from a hygienic point of view (the formation of self-sufficient building islands should prevent the spread of diseases via counteract the entire clinic area).


  • Royal naval hospital (1764), Plymouth, England
  • Hôpital de la Marine (from 1782), Rochefort, France , .
  • The Hôpital Lariboisière in Paris, inaugurated in 1854, was built from individual pavilions in accordance with the hygienic ideas of the time in order to avoid contamination.
  • On July 1, 1876, the Provincial-Irren-Anstalt Rittergut Altscherbitz was founded under the direction of Köppe. It still exists today as the Saxon Hospital for Psychiatry and Neurology Altscherbitz in Schkeuditz at the gates of Leipzig. In particular, Köppe's successor, Privy Councilor Paetz, pushed the innovations started by the founding director by building additional pavilions and introducing the open door system, the guard room system and occupational therapy.
  • University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf , built in 1885–1889 as Eppendorf General Hospital in a pavilion construction.
  • The 1891-1895 mainly to plans by Paul Rowald built urban Nordstadtkrankenhaus in Hanover is one of the first clinics in pavilion style.
General Hospital St. Georg in Hamburg-St. George. General view in 1902.
Site plan of the Teupitz state insane asylum at the time it opened in 1908.

Further development

In later buildings, the satellite system was preferred, in which several wards or clinics were combined in one house. The system was later criticized for the fact that “with a block-like main building and the more independent departments in the pavilion style with treatment wings behind them”, the transport routes for the patients in the individual departments were far too long.

For a modern hospital, the pavilion style is outdated because of the partially isolated locations and the long transport routes with no weather protection for patient movements and food supply. Central operating theater and laboratory facilities tend to require a horizontal or vertical network-like structure of the wards and wards.


Individual evidence

  1. ^ Raymond Riveau: La naissance de l'hôpital maritime de Rochefort , In Rochefort 1666-1966, mélanges historiques , Ville de Rochefort, 1966, pp. 145-154 (French).
  2. Anne Petillot, Georges Fessy: Patrimoine hospitalier , éditions Scala, 2004 (French).
  3. Saxon Hospital Altscherbitz, official website
  5. ( Memento of the original from October 31, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  6. 100 years of Rheinhessen Fachklinik Alzey, founding and building history, pages 38 to 40
  7. ^ The history of the hospitals in Mainz - Retrieved April 8, 2019 .
  8. Urban planning essay on the LKH University Hospital Graz
  9. ^ The LKH, "Wonder of the World" for Graz
  10. 100 years of the LKH University Hospital Graz
  11. From the green Bible . In: Der Spiegel . No. 13 , 1961 ( online ).