Brown trout ( Salmo trutta fario )
|Greenwood , Rosen , Weitzman & Myers , 1966|
The Protacanthopterygii are one of the four sub-cohorts of the Euteleosteomorpha within the real bony fish (Teleostei). The name means "before the barnacles (Acanthopterygii)". Protacanthopterygii live both in the sea and in fresh water, mostly in the northern hemisphere.
A definition of protacanthopterygii is difficult because they show a mosaic of primitive, modern and again reduced features. They are therefore not very comprehensively defined , namely, according to Johnson & Patterson (1996) only by two skeletal synapomorphies :
- The epicentralia (series of bones ) are cartilaginous.
- No bifurcated epineuralia and epipleuralia (bones).
According to Nelson (2006), the Protacanthopterygii include four orders, twelve families, 94 genera and over 350 species:
- Golden salmon (Argentiniformes)
- Salmonid fish (Salmoniformes)
- Smelt-like (Osmeriformes)
- Pike-like (Esociformes)
The assignment of the pike-like species is controversial. Often today they are not regarded as protacanthopterygii, but as a sister group of all higher teleostei , the neoteleostei . They share a tooth attachment, in which only the back of the tooth is attached to the base of the tooth with connective tissue , but not the front, which means that the large teeth, like pike, can fold over to the prey passage.
The recently made classification of the Maulstachler as a sister group of the smelt-like made the Protacanthopterygii paraphyletic in the previous sense . This is why Betancur-R. et al. (from 2013) on the decision to separate the smelt-like (with the exception of the galaxies ) from the Protacanthopterygii and to combine them with the mouth-spines in the new sub-cohort Stomiati (except for the salamander fish , which is now only part of the new sub-cohort Lepidogalaxii). According to this current system, the galaxies form their own order Galaxiiformes within the Protacanthopterygii, s. the following cladogram:
- Ricardo Betancur-R., Richard E. Broughton, Edward O. Wiley, Kent Carpenter, J. Andrés López, Chenhong Li, Nancy I. Holcroft, Dahiana Arcila, Millicent Sanciangco, James C Cureton II, Feifei Zhang, Thaddaeus Buser, Matthew A. Campbell, Jesus A Ballesteros, Adela Roa-Varon, Stuart Willis, W. Calvin Borden, Thaine Rowley, Paulette C. Reneau, Daniel J. Hough, Guoqing Lu, Terry Grande, Gloria Arratia, Guillermo Ortí: The Tree of Life and a New Classification of Bony Fishes. PLOS Currents Tree of Life. 2013 Apr 18 [last modified: 2013 Apr 23]. Edition 1. doi: 10.1371 / currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288 , PDF
- Joseph S. Nelson : Fishes of the World , John Wiley & Sons, 2006, ISBN 0-471-25031-7 .
- EO Wiley & GD Johnson (2010): A teleost classification based on monophyletic groups. In: JS Nelson, H.-P. Schultze & MVH Wilson: Origin and Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Teleosts, 2010, Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich, ISBN 978-3-89937-107-9 .