from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rudaki , also Rodaki (literally "from Rudak"), with full name Arabic - Persian ابو عبد الله جعفر رودكى, DMG Abu 'Abd Allah Ǧa'far-i Rudaki , (* 858 or 859 in Rudak , Khorasan , today Pandschrud at panjakent , Tajikistan , † 940 / 41 likely ibid, possibly Bukhara ) is considered the father of the New Persian poetry .

The poet and musician Rudaki worked for a time at the court of the Samanid prince Amir Nasr Ben Ahmad II (914–942 / 3). Although he fell in favor of the emir , he was known and famous among poets in different epochs as "master" or "king of poets".

Rudaki died in humble circumstances in 941. About 1000 verses of the genres Qasīda , Ghazal , Masnawī (“double verses”) and Rubāʿī (“quatrains”) have been preserved from him.

Rudaki's masterpiece is Kalīla wa Dimna ( Burzoe's Panchatantra ), which he transposed into New Persian in verse. They are fables that are both educational and entertaining as well as humorous and critical. Ferdousī dedicated a chapter of his shāhnāme to this collection of fables by Rudaki.

The original of Kalīla wa Dimna comes originally from Sanskrit and was called Panchatantra in India , d. H. "Five strands (of stories)". (The term "Tantra" used today in German goes back to a different meaning of the Sanskrit word Tantra "warp thread, sequence, ritual, systematic teaching".)

Kalīla wa Dimna belongs to the Pandsch Ketāb ("five books"), through which z. For example, children on today's Afghan soil learned to read and write in the village schools and " Koran schools ", in the Madchal ("preschool") and in families with particular fun. Rudaki's language is simple, his poetry is melodic and complex.

Rudaki also wrote other poems dealing with the subjects of “knowledge”, “education”, “art”, “death”, “life”, “love”, “ nowuz ” and “world”. His Qasīda is best known. The scent of Amu Darja is approaching ( Persian بوى جوى موليان آيد همى, DMG bū-ye ǧū-ye mūlīyān āyad hamī ), with which he is said to have persuaded the sultan to return immediately from the steppe to Bukhara and which is still often set to music today.

Aphorisms (selection)

Ин ҷаҳонро нигар ба чашми хирад,
Не бад-он чашм, к-андар ӯ нигарӣ.
Ҳамчу дарёст в-аз накӯкорӣ
Киштие соз, то бад-он гузарӣ!
این جهان را نگر به چشم خرد
نی بدان چـشــم کاندرو نگری
همچو دریاســـت وز نکوکاری
کشـتيى ســاز تا بدان گذری 
īn ǧahān-rā nigar ba čašm-i ḫirad
nē ba-d-ān čašm k'andar-ū nigarī
hamču daryā-st w'az nakūkārī
kištī'ī sāz tā ba-d-ān guẕarī 
Look at this world with the eye of wisdom
Not with the eye with which you usually look.
It is like the sea, and it is built from benefits
You get a ship so that you can see through the vastness.

In 1958 the Rudaki Museum of History and Local Lore was opened in Punjakent. On the facade of the museum there are two carved murals and a famous saying by Rudaki:

Ҳеҷ шодӣ нест андар ин ҷаҳон,
Бартар аз дидори рӯи дӯстон.
هيچ شادى نيست اندر اين جهان
بـرتـر از ديــدار روى دوســـــتــان
hēč šādī nēst andar īn ǧahān
bartar az dīdār-i rō-yi dōstān
No greater friend knows this world
When eyes fall on friend's face.



See also

References and comments

  1. "Rudaki was born in the village of Banuj, in the Rudak district of Samarqand." // "Life and Works of Abu 'Abd Allah Rudaki" by Dr. Iraj Bashiri (The University of Minnesota, USA Copyright © 2002, 2008 by Iraj Bashiri)
  2. "Rudaki, born in Rudak, a district near Samarqand (in present-day Uzbekistan), is considered the father of Persian poetry." // Reza Saberi, رضا صابری “An Invitation to Persian Poetry”, 2006. P. 290.
  3. "Rūdakī (properly Rōd̲h̲akī) ... was born in Rōd̲h̲ak, a suburb of Samarḳand" // Blois, FC de, “Rūdakī”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam , Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis , CE Bosworth, E. van Donzel, WP Heinrichs. Consulted online on 12 January 2017 doi: 10.1163 / 1573-3912_islam_SIM_6319 , ISBN 978-90-04-16121-4 , 1960-2007.
  4. Rūdakī . Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
  5. Der Islam I , p. 238, Frankfurt / M. 1968.
  6. Nezami 'Arūżī: CAHAR maqāle (Four Essays) , revised translation by EG Browne, London: Luzac, 1921, p 35; Soundtrack on Youtube z. B. here: [1]
  7. Original spelling , cf. Divan-e Dehkhoda, p. 195 .
  8. ^ Transcription according to DMG according to the Tajik pronunciation.
  9. Last line literally: Build a ship so that you can cross it (the sea) .
  10. ^ Republican Historycal and Regional Study Museum named after A. Rudaki
  12. ^ Tajik inscription on the facade of the museum.
  13. Persian original written version a. Transcription according to DMG according to the Tajik pronunciation.

Web links