San Andrés Tuxtla
|San Andrés Tuxtla|
San Andrés Tuxtla on the map of Veracruz
|Municipio||San Andrés Tuxtla|
|City foundation||around 1530|
San Andrés Tuxtla is located in the northwestern foothills of the Sierra de los Tuxtlas about 30 kilometers from the Mexican Gulf coast at an altitude of about 280 m above sea level. d. M. The city is just under 525 kilometers to the southeast from Mexico City ; Veracruz , the former capital of the state, is just 160 kilometers to the northwest. The smaller but more attractive neighboring town of Santiago Tuxtla is only about 16 km to the west.
The soils in the region are mostly of volcanic origin, although the volcanic mountains in the area are considered extinct. For thousands of years volcanic activity has shifted further northwest into the Sierra Volcánica Transversal .
The annual average temperatures are around 24 to 26 ° C with a rainfall that can fluctuate between 1400 and 3600 mm annually. The humidity is usually correspondingly high.
The city of San Andrés Tuxtla has around 62,000 inhabitants. About 80% of them are Catholic, but the influence of American Evangelical sects has increased significantly in recent times . In the surrounding countryside, pre-Christian cult practices still play a certain role.
While the population in the surrounding area lives mainly from agriculture (corn, sugar cane, beans, etc.) and from cattle breeding (cattle, pigs, turkeys), the city is the artisanal, mercantile and cultural center of the region. The importance of tobacco cultivation , which was introduced by Cuban and German immigrants at the beginning of the 19th century, should not be underestimated - the region's cigars, some of which are still hand-rolled, enjoy a good reputation worldwide. In the last few decades the service sector (banks, insurance companies, schools, hospitals, tourism, etc.) has experienced a significant upswing, but the Tuxtlas region is, by Mexican standards, rather backward and poor.
Human settlements go back a long way in the humid hot, but in combination with the mineral-rich soils, very fertile region. With the Olmecs , one of the first and at the same time most important advanced civilizations in Mesoamerica came into being , from which impulses for the construction of temple pyramids originated as well as for the development of pre-Columbian sculpture and the calendar . The cult site Tres Zapotes , about 49 km to the west, is one of the longest continuously inhabited places in Mexico. The Spanish conquistadors came to the area around 1520, where they encountered an existing Indian settlement called Tzacoalco , which they renamed after the apostle Andrew . It belonged to the conqueror Hernán Cortés, who was appointed Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca in 1529 . In 1959, the rapidly growing city of Pope John XXIII. the bishopric raised.
- Unlike the smaller neighboring city of Santiago Tuxtla , the city has no colonial charm.
- Today's cathedral is dedicated to St. Dedicated to Joseph and the Apostle Andreas ( San José y San Andrés ). It is a two-tower church building with three naves and a domed crossing from the late 19th century.
- In 2008, a regional museum was inaugurated, which - in addition to the presentation of some pre-Columbian jade jewelry, ceramics and small sculptures - mainly deals with regional things (colonial times, tobacco, etc.).
- The Eyipantla waterfall ( Salto de Eyipantla ) is a popular destination.
- Some beaches on the Gulf Coast also belong to the municipality.
sons and daughters of the town
- Ulises Carrión (1941–1989), artist, writer and bookseller