Ski boots ( ski boots, ski boots ) are special shoes for skiers . Depending on the type of skiing, there are ski boots in a wide variety of designs. There are significant differences between shoes for Nordic skiing (e.g. cross-country skiing ) and alpine skiing .
The ski boot gives the foot support and ensures safe power transmission to the ski. The ski boot has special mounts for the mounts of the ski bindings .
Alpine boots are attached to the binding with the toe and heel. A distinction is made between Alpine shoes molded shoe (hard boots) and soft boots (dt .: hard and soft shell model).
Originally, ski boots were heavy mountain boots made of very stiff leather . With the invention of the safety binding in the 1960s and 1970s and the associated replacement of the cable binding, the ski boot developed as an independent design with its locking projections extending from the sole to the front and back for engaging in the binding's jaws. According to the DIN ISO standard, the sole is smooth in the toe area to enable the ski binding to be released from the side.
Touring ski boots for ski mountaineering are lighter in construction and more flexible on the shaft in order to enable a "comfortable" ascent and have a profiled sole like mountain boots in order to enable ascent even with the skis unbuckled in snow-free terrain. This mobility can partly be locked for departure. A removable inner shoe usually has a lacing.
After a phase of specialization in the 80s and 90s, today, in the context of the numerous new or revived winter sports, the types of ski boots and mountain boots are increasingly converging , both hard boots and high-alpine shell shoes, as well as soft boots and medium-weight mountain boots ( Hybrid boots ).
Shell shoes, hard boots
Hard boots are the "classic" ski boots. They have a hard outer shoe, called a shell , and a soft, thermally insulating and cushioning inner shoe. The foot is in the inner shoe; the hard shell is tightly closed around the inner shoe with buckles or other locking mechanisms. When the shoe is closed, the foot can only be bent at the ankle . The shoe supports this direction of movement through a joint in the shell. Turning the foot inwards ( pronation ) or outwards ( supination ) is only marginally possible. The firm closure of the boot around the foot ensures the direct power transfer of weight transfer and leg movements to the ski and reduces the risk of injury to the ankle.
While the classic alpine ski boot is closed with buckles as a front entry , there were many models in the 1980s and 90s that could offer more comfort as a rear entry . With these models, the entire rear area could be folded down from the heel, making it easier to get on and off, especially with thick calves or insoles. These shoes sometimes get by with just one buckle at the shaft end, or they complement the fine adjustment with different quick-release systems. However, the system has not been able to establish itself economically and has remained a fad these years. It is currently still offered in the youth sector, so that the buckle shoe is now dominant again and only a few providers supply the adult sector. Even with buckle shoes, the number of fixations varies, between one and five, and can be supplemented by further adjustment systems. The concrete execution depends on contemporary constructions.
The upper edge of the shoe also changes with current driving styles. When hot dogging (mogul slope style in a strong supine position), for example, the shell shoes reached almost below the knee. Overall, with this upper edge, the risk of injury has shifted from the ankle area ( malleolar fracture , torn ligament ) to the tibia and fibula , as well as the knee joint and kneecap . Typical are Tibiasfrakturen , fibula , sacrum and sideband cracks and knee injuries do today 40% of all winter sports injuries of the lower extremities.
Modern soft boots have been around 2002 on the market and an alternative to the particular grassroots -Skiläufern often perceived as uncomfortable hard shell shoes. Like soft boots for snowboarders, they are made entirely of a soft, insulating material and have no hard outer shell. This avoids the pressure points often caused by poorly fitting hard boots and the shoe becomes more comfortable overall. The strength required for recreational skiing is achieved by lacing similar to that of hiking boots . They are very similar to the full leather shoe of the 1970s, and tie in with the tradition of touring ski boots and special shoes for twintips freestyle (Acrobatics) . Such shoes are also used for telemarking, which has become fashionable again, and are also suitable for snowshoeing .
In the past, ski boots were laced. The first buckles on leather shoes appeared in the 1960s. Today's plastic trays are all closed with buckles. The inner shoe of ski touring boots is often laced.
Ski boots, like ski bindings, are standardized by international standards ( ISO ).
In contrast to the usual shoe size systems, ski boot sizes indicate the length in centimeters and are often referred to as MP or Mondopoint . However, the Mondopoint system, defined by ISO standard 9407, names the foot length in millimeters and actually also the foot width. In particular, the naming of the foot length instead of the length of the last , which is characteristic of the Mondopoint system in contrast to other shoe size systems, is not always adhered to.
Nordic skiing sports
Cross-country boots are half-height boots made of leather or synthetic fiber . They have a reinforcement in the area of the toe, with skating shoes sometimes also in the area of the ball of the foot, which is hooked into the ski binding. The ski is only attached to the tip of the foot; the heel remains free.
- ↑ Klaus Dann: Ski and snowboard injuries from a sport-traumatological point of view. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on February 10, 2008 ; Retrieved May 5, 2008 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.