Dead nettle embracing the stem
|Dead nettle embracing the stem|
Stem encompassing dead nettle ( Lamium amplexicaule )
The Lamium Amplexicaule stands out among the Taubnesseln by the semi-columnar comprehensive, broad bracts, which often sit in the upper, flower-bearing part of stem very dense. The opposite leaves in the lower part of the stem, however, are often still stalked and the leaf blade has a diameter of 2 to 3 cm.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 18.
Ecology and phenology
Most of the open flowers are self-pollinating . In addition to these normal flowers, smaller flowers that remain closed and are hidden in the calyx are formed in bad weather; these do not open up and fertilize themselves ( Kleistogamy ); they form a high fruit set.
The main flowering period extends from March to May (in high altitudes until August) and in autumn from September to October. When the weather is frost-free, the dead nettle surrounding the stem also blooms in winter.
The original range includes all of Eurasia and northern Africa . It was also introduced into North America by humans. There, as in South America and New Zealand, it is a neophyte. The dead nettle, which encompasses the stems, grows as a " weed " in loamy, nitrogen-rich areas such as field edges, gardens, vineyards or ruderal areas . In Central Europe it is a species of the order Polygono-Chenopodietalia. It thrives in Central Europe on warm, moderately fresh, nutrient-rich, preferably low-lime, neutral, often low-humus, light, loose, sandy loam soils or cohesive sandy soils in Central Europe.
Some authors differentiate between the following subspecies and varieties (as of 2003):
- Lamium amplexicaule var. Aleppicum (Boiss. & Hausskn.) Bornm. (Syn .: Lamium aleppicum Boiss. & Hausskn. ): It occurs from southeastern Turkey to Iran .
- Lamium amplexicaule L. subsp. amplexicaule : It occurs in the temperate zones of Eurasia and from Macaronesia to Ethiopia.
- Lamium amplexicaule var. Bornmuelleri Mennema : She is on Iraq , in Turkey, in Iran in the area of Syria and Lebanon before.
- Lamium amplexicaule var. Incisum Boiss. : It occurs from Greece to northwestern Iran.
- Lamium amplexicaule subsp. mauritanicum (Gand. ex Batt.) Maire (Syn .: Lamium mauritanicum Gand. ex Batt. ): It occurs in Morocco and Algeria .
- Lamium amplexicaule var. Orientale (Pacz.) Mennema : It occurs from eastern Ukraine to southern and south-central European Russia .
- Henning Haeupler, Thomas Muer: picture atlas of the fern and flowering plants of Germany . Ed .: Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (= The fern and flowering plants of Germany . Volume 2 ). Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2000, ISBN 3-8001-3364-4 .
- Rudolf Schubert , Klaus Werner, Hermann Meusel (eds.): Excursion flora for the areas of the GDR and the FRG . Founded by Werner Rothmaler. 13./14. Edition. tape 2 : vascular plants . People and knowledge, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-06-012539-2 .
- Otto Schmeil, Jost Fitschen, Werner Rauh: Flora of Germany and its adjacent areas. 84th edition. Quelle & Meyer, Heidelberg 1968.
- Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . With the collaboration of Angelika Schwabe and Theo Müller. 8th, heavily revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 , pp. 804 .
- Ruprecht Düll , Herfried Kutzelnigg : Pocket dictionary of the plants of Germany and neighboring countries. The most common Central European species in portrait . 7th, corrected and enlarged edition. Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2011, ISBN 978-3-494-01424-1 , p. 435 .
- Gustav Hegi: Illustrated flora of Central Europe. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta . 2nd Edition. Volume V. Part 4: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones 3 (4) (Labiatae - Solanaceae) . Carl Hanser and Paul Parey, Munich and Berlin / Hamburg 1964, ISBN 3-489-78021-3 , pp. 2542–2543 (unchanged reprint from 1927 with addendum).
- Rafaël Govaerts, 2003: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Lamium amplexicaule. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- Xi-wen Li, Ian C. Hedge: Lamium. In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven (Ed.): Flora of China . tape 17 : Verbenaceae through Solanaceae . Science Press / Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing / St. Louis 1994, ISBN 0-915279-24-X , pp. 157 (English). , same text online as the printed work.
- Dietmar Brandes: Urban flora of Sousse (Tunisia). Braunschweig, 2001, online .
- Dead nettle embracing the stem. In: FloraWeb.de.
- Dead nettle embracing the stem . In: BiolFlor, the database of biological-ecological characteristics of the flora of Germany.
- Lamium amplexicaule L. In: Info Flora , the national data and information center for Swiss flora .
- Distribution in the northern hemisphere from: Eric Hultén, Magnus Fries: Atlas of North European vascular plants. 1986, ISBN 3-87429-263-0 at Den virtuella floran. (swed.)
- Thomas Meyer: Dead nettle data sheet with identification key and photos at Flora-de: Flora von Deutschland (old name of the website: Flowers in Swabia )