The Velika Jastrebica above the Pirina Polyana trough valley
The Velika Jastrebica (German: Großer Falkenberg ) is the main peak in the high plateau of the Bijela gora at 1862 m . It is part of the Orjen Mountains in western Montenegro . The border line with Bosnia and Herzegovina runs on Velika Jastrebica .
The rounded peak is easy to climb, but difficult to get to. There is no direct ascent to Velika Jastrebica. It is mostly reached via the ridge hike Zubački kabao - Vučji zub - Velika Jastrebica. From Bosnia an ascent over the Pirina poljana and a tightrope walk from the Mala Jastrebica to the Velika Jastrebica is the most common route. An ascent from the north from the Bijela gora is difficult due to the entanglement of overlapped and folded geological layers and the glacial overprinting. In the extensive plateau of the Bijela gora, an ascent is therefore only promising via the giant doline of the Katunište.
The Velika Jastrebica ridge forms the largest ridge in Orjen, which is over 1800 m high. From southeast to northwest it consists of the three individual peaks Kršljev mramor, Velika Jastrebica and Bezimeni vrh.
Numerous cirques testify to the intense glaciation during the Ice Age . Between Kršljev mramor and Velika Jastrebica lies the south-east cirque of Velika Jastrebica, which narrows sharply down the valley. As an elongated cirque it leads to the giant doline of Opuvani do . The north-west cirque of Jastrebica is more extensive; in its lower area there is a small depression without drainage.
The Jastrebica is delimited from Bijela gora by a striking geological thrust in a glacially shaped threshold. This threshold, laid out as a layered staircase, is a difficult obstacle to overcome. This means that the Jastrebica can hardly be reached from the extensive tongue basins of Jarčiste and tongue basins of Ledenice . Down the slope there are extensive primeval forest-like high forests of silver fir and beech. The border forest ecotonic forms the snake skin pine .
The Jastrebica is built entirely from Cretaceous carbonate stones. They fall at a steep angle towards the Bijela gora. The young Quaternary deposits are all covered with high forest today. In contrast to the other extensive moraine landscapes in Orjen, there is no clear chronological assignment of the Quaternary moraines on the Jastrebica.
The history of Jastrebica is through the determination of the border line between the possessions of Venice and the Ottoman Empire and subsequently by the k. k. Monarchy ( Austria-Hungary ) and the Ottoman Empire. The name of Jastrebica appeared in Venetian maps as Mte Falcone in the 17th century . The cartographic assignment is uncertain due to topographical deficiencies in the early maps.
From 1850 the topography of the remote parts of the Orjens became clearer with the then newly drawn military maps. As a border summit, Velika Jastrebica retains a more schematic hatching than all other peaks . In particular, convincing depictions of the north side are missing.
With the uprisings in the Krivošije in 1869 and 1882, an exact military topography in the Orjen came to the fore again. One year after the uprising, the k. u. k. Military Geographical Institute also carried out new recordings of the inland on the north side of Jastrebica. This 1: 75,000 scale map was published in 1909. After the loss-making battle on 9/10 May on the Jastrebica and the Vučji zub the ridge line of the Jastrebica was marked with boundary stones. Large parts of the confusing northern slopes of the Jastrebica, however, remained highly schematic even with the new topographical record. In the detailed map 1: 10,000, which the k. u. k. The ridge line around the highest Orjen peaks was omitted from the Bay of Kotor before the First World War .