Thermal insulation composite system
A thermal insulation composite system (abbreviated EIFS or WDV system ) is a system for dams of building external walls . The regulated structure consists of the type of fastening (glued and / or doweled or a rail system), an insulating material, a plaster base layer (reinforced plaster) and a surface layer (top plaster or flat facing). As an alternative or competitive model, a. the rear-ventilated curtain wall .
Also names as are colloquially EIFS thermal skin and upgraded insulation used, but they are misleading and should be avoided because an EIFS Although a thermal insulation (insulated facade), but a full thermal insulation can also be a curtain wall, which again is not EIFS.
Thermal insulation composite systems are often criticized, u. a. because of the use of potentially harmful or fire-hazardous materials (such as biocides or polystyrene ), because of frequent damage to buildings and low effectiveness and economic efficiency with high investment costs. See thermal insulation problems .
History of the ETICS
A thermal insulation composite system was used for the first time in Berlin in 1957. A rigid polystyrene foam was used as the insulation material, which is sold by BASF under the brand name Styropor ® . The first insulation materials with a thickness of 20–50 mm were still a long way from today's standard, but they provided heating energy savings that were previously unknown. From the mid-1960s this system was used on a larger scale.
In southern Germany, at the beginning of the 1960s, polystyrene insulation boards with reinforced plastic plaster were processed in industrial construction (sugar silo in Regensburg) and in residential construction (as the "Dryvit" process, developed by Vereinigte Wachswarenfabriken AG Hornung and Dr. Fischer ). Various techniques of reinforcement with metal threads, metal mesh, glass fiber mesh and - imported from the USA - plastic mesh were used. The insulation panels were provided with glue at points and edges (bead method) and glued to the wall with strong hand pressure. Problems arose with this process due to the “peeling” of the polystyrene panels due to insufficiently deposited panels, the moisture absorption of the glass silk fabric and the resulting increase in volume as well as the static charge on the plastic plaster surface and the associated dust accumulation. At that time, the sand-lime brick industry was the first brick industry to recommend such a system as a "KS thermal skin" - the first residential buildings with it were built in Nuremberg. In the search for alternatives, mineral fiber boards were also used from around 1977, whereby a modified working technique was applied here (modified mineral plasters, plastic plasters, lime and silicate plasters). The insulation materials listed below have also been used since around 1990.
Construction and assembly
In principle, all substrates (e.g. brick, sand-lime brick, concrete, plastered existing facades) are suitable. If the substrate has sufficient load-bearing capacity, the insulation panels can be glued on directly. Depending on the strength of the insulation material or if the subsurface does not have sufficient load-bearing capacity, the panels must also be anchored back with plate dowels. Rail systems to which the panels are attached are used for very uneven surfaces.
Attachment of the insulation boards
There are different ways of fastening the insulation panels of an ETICS. The insulation panels or lamellas can be glued, pegged, glued and additionally pegged or mounted with a rail system. In most cases, the insulation material ( insulation material ) is simply attached to the existing wall substrate made of brick, sand-lime brick or concrete in the form of panels or lamellas by gluing and / or dowels (plate dowels).
On a level surface, the insulation panels, which weigh less than ten kilograms per square meter, are usually glued directly to the existing external plaster using a special adhesive mortar. In this case, the adhesive is applied over the entire surface. On the other hand, the bead-point method is used for unevenness in the subsurface. The adhesive is applied around the edges of the panel with additional points of adhesive in the panel surface. The area of the bond depends on the system used and should be between 40 and 100 percent.
Anchoring of the thermal insulation composite system is particularly common in regions with high wind loads and corresponding weather extremes and is mandatory from a certain building height. Whether and how many dowels must be used is stipulated by the manufacturer used in the "building inspectorate approval". The dowels to be used differ in their diameter depending on the manufacturer and type of insulation. The additional mechanical fastening of the dowels prevents the insulation from breaking out in the event of wind suction .
A dual solution of dowelling and gluing comes from a statically relevant point of view, e.g. B. used in the insulation of old buildings. So when the surface is uneven, damaged or the tensile strength of the existing surface is too low for gluing. From a statically relevant point of view, mineral insulation materials of larger format and weight must always be glued and dowelled.
In the case of particularly strong unevenness, the anchoring is carried out linearly on the existing facade using metal rails. Gluing is completely unnecessary here, as the insulation panels are attached to the rails. This rail fastening is only used when the ground is very uneven because it is the most expensive type of fastening.
Insulation materials for thermal insulation composite systems
For use in ETICS, insulation materials must meet higher requirements than in interior construction; those with good flammability and high water absorption capacity are only suitable to a limited extent.
- Mineral wool (rock and glass wool)
- Mineral foam (calcium silicate hydrates)
- Gypsum foam (calcium sulfate hydrates)
- Calcium silicate plate
- Expanded polystyrene rigid foam (EPS)
- Extruded rigid polystyrene foam (XPS)
- Rigid polyurethane foam (PUR)
- Resole resin
Synthetic composite materials
- Vacuum insulation panels (VIP)
Composite materials made from multiple materials
- Styrofoam concrete panels made of crushed recycled EPS and cement (e.g. Prottelith)
Reinforcement mortar, concealed
Reinforcement mortar or plaster is applied to the insulation material . Either mineral or organic reinforcement mortars are used, depending on the desired finish . The reinforcement layer consists of a reinforcement mortar (plaster), in which a fabric (glass fiber fabric) is embedded, which is a reinforcement fabric in the upper third of the reinforcement layer.
In principle, mineral plasters are ecologically and structurally better than organic ones. In the case of mineral plasters, textured plasters (scratch plasters) are particularly advantageous. They do not need a paint and are particularly suitable as a preventive protection against algae growth. In the case of mineral plasters, it is important to ensure that they are not plastic-coated and thus impair the good ecological balance of the mineral plasters.
The physical advantage of mineral (inorganic) plasters over organic plasters is that they have a higher density and thus a higher heat storage capacity. This slows down the cooling at night and thus also the loss of water on the surface (algae infestation).
Mineral plasters with a binding agent made from lime or cement absorb very little water and release it again quickly. Organic plasters, on the other hand, dry very slowly.
The higher pH value of the mineral plasters reduces algae and fungal growth. However, it decreases over time due to carbonation. Due to these physical building properties, organic plasters are attacked more quickly by algae and fungi, and they also become soiled faster than mineral plasters.
The ecological disadvantage of organic plasters is that they mainly consist of plastics (petroleum product). In addition, they are more difficult to dispose of because the new landfill ordinance requires them to be thermally pretreated prior to landfilling: high energy consumption for disposal.
In the case of mineral finishing renders, a one-time leveling coat is generally recommended, as this improves:
- the precaution against color changes in colored plasters,
- the delay of harmless weathering phenomena,
- the water-repellent function of the plaster system
- and the resistance of the protection against algae formation and fungal attack increases.
However, a coating is also recommended for organic plaster systems due to the above-mentioned algae growth problems.
As a paint z. B. Dispersion silicate or silicone resin coatings with biocides are used. Biocides are substances that are toxic to humans and the environment , which is why you should generally refrain from painting to prevent algae growth. The reason is that the paint and the biocides are washed out when it rains and land in the adjacent subsurface. The ecological consequences have not yet been investigated.
In terms of building physics, the paint's high resistance to water vapor diffusion is problematic. Care must be taken that the water vapor diffusion of the wall is not impaired too much. With each new coat of paint, the water vapor diffusion resistance of the outer coating of the wall increases and thus the winter condensation in the system, which has a negative impact on the longevity.
Plasters of different thicknesses, structures (scratch, grooved or modeling plaster) and colors are used. When it comes to coloring, lighter colors are preferred in order to avoid stress cracks due to large temperature fluctuations. Up to now, the brightness of a color was identified with the brightness reference value (HBW). The HBW describes the proportion of visible light hitting a surface that is reflected by this surface and ranges between 0 (= black) and 100 (= white). It is recommended to only use colors with a HBW greater than 20 (Germany) or 25 (Austria). You can deviate from this recommendation, for example, on north facades or shaded areas. In future, the reflection behavior of plasters and paints will be assessed using the TSR value, as it takes into account the entire electromagnetic wavelength spectrum of solar radiation.
Corresponding profiles of the system holder can be used to structure and design the facade. These are glued to the ETICS and also given a final coating. There are z. B. cornices, window frames or boss stones are available.
In the case of existing buildings (especially ornate old buildings ), ETICS critics criticize the radical change in appearance.
In addition to good insulation, the avoidance of condensation in the wall is important for the purpose and usability of an ETICS (see also: Glaser method ). Especially in winter, the water vapor pressure and temperature are high inside and low outside. Depending on its temperature, air can only absorb a certain maximum amount of moisture, which is indicated by the saturation vapor pressure or the dew point temperature . Due to the respective structure of the wall, conditions are specified for the course of the temperature and thus the saturation vapor pressure as well as for the course of the vapor pressure. Only if the vapor pressure in the wall cross-section is always below the saturation vapor pressure will condensation never occur; the applicable standards, however, allow a temporary low failure.
In the case of multi-layer external components, the freedom from condensation is therefore always ensured if the thermal insulation capacity increases towards the outside and the water vapor diffusion resistance decreases towards the outside.
If the wall structure is reversed, i.e. thermal insulation from the inside, the vapor pressure can locally reach the saturation vapor pressure and the excess moisture turns out to be condensation water depending on the dew point . This can become critical where the resulting condensation water cannot evaporate again easily.
The water vapor diffusion resistance should decrease towards the outside so that the moisture that occurs during the evaporation period can easily evaporate towards the outside. The main cause of damage to ETICS systems is the loss of condensation between the insulation and the external plaster. If this condensation water does not completely evaporate due to the high water vapor diffusion resistance of the external plaster and paint, it can flake off from freezing water and gradually dampen the insulation material. The consequences are a decrease in the thermal insulation capacity and stability problems , which can require a complete demolition and reconstruction of the ETICS.
In order to reduce the risk of algae formation on ETIC systems, it is best to use thermal insulation with a high heat storage capacity and / or thick mineral plaster. This ensures that the outside of the walls cool down as slowly as possible. The slow night-time cooling reduces the time in which the temperature of the component surface falls below the ambient temperature and condensate can form on the plaster surface. Algae grow, depending on the species, from a humidity of 70%. The formation of algae can also be prevented by providing the ETICS with a final coating that has a delaying and / or preventive effect against algae and fungal infestation.
As long as there is heating or cooling, the mass of the outer wall has no influence on the heating or cooling energy requirement - this is only determined by the heat transfer coefficient (U-value) of the wall. The same applies to the indoor climate. Only the time course of the heating or cooling capacity depends on the storage capacity of the wall. It is different in times without heating or cooling. The greater the storage capacity, the slower the outside weather influences the indoor climate: high outside temperatures must first heat up the wall before it in turn heats up the interior.
When different materials come together, different coefficients of thermal expansion should be taken into account in order to avoid stress cracks and flaking (especially in the case of sunlit walls).
For a European Technical Assessment (ETB) of ETICS, the entire insulation system must be tested several times and classified according to EN 13501-1. The fire behavior depends on the insulation material and the type (especially thickness) of the plaster system. ETICS with non-combustible insulation materials can achieve the European class for fire behavior A1 or A2, ETICS with all other insulation materials can achieve Euroclass B or C.
In the case of facade insulation made of flame-retardant polystyrene insulation boards (Styrofoam) with a thickness of over 10 cm, a fire barrier made of non-combustible insulation material is required above the wall openings (e.g. mineral wool class A according to DIN 4102-1), which is 20 cm high and 30 cm wider on each side than the opening. Alternatively, a fire bar extending over the entire floor can also be provided in every second floor. Low buildings in building classes 1 to 3 are excluded from this in the model building regulations. The general building authority approval of the DiBt provides for horizontal fire barriers for many thermal insulation composite systems.
Since effects occur in a real facade fire that cannot be conclusively assessed with the help of small or medium-sized laboratory tests, most European countries require large-scale tests for insulation systems on higher buildings. In Germany, the large-scale test is carried out in accordance with DIN 4102-20, in Austria in accordance with ÖNORM B 3800-5.
After several facade fires, around 2011 in Delmenhorst , a report by the NDR appeared on November 28, 2011 on fire tests in the Materials Testing Institute for Construction Braunschweig (MPA Braunschweig), which showed that the polystyrene insulation catches fire and can spread the fire if the installation of fire protection strips made of non-flammable mineral wool would be dispensed with.
According to the Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik (DIBt) (an institution jointly supported by the federal government and the states), the test stand used by the MPA Braunschweig did not correspond to the structure required for approval tests, as is also described in the working draft of DIN 4102-20. The test did not meet the requirements of the standard or the approval principles, nor did the test have plausible practical relevance. The DIBt published a statement on December 7, 2011, which u. a. emphasizes that the previously approved ETICS systems with rigid polystyrene foam are safe and that the arrangement of fire bars on every 2nd floor effectively limits the spread of fire / fire spread to external walls. The German Energy Agency (dena) also published a statement on December 2, 2011, which refers to the NDR report and rejects the criticism of thermal insulation.
The NDR editorial team contradicted this presentation in its follow-up report and questioned the "Fireschacht test" of DIN 4102 (see German Institute for Standardization ). According to the report, the polystyrene clamped as a narrow high rod in the test procedure melts upwards and thus moves away from the heat or fire source (pilot burner and dripped (poly) styrene), whereby the test procedure would be structured in such a way that it would be used by industry the desired result of proving the non-flammability of polystyrene and the lack of fire propagation would meet. According to the fire expert Ingolf Kotthoff, who works for the fire protection working group of the WDVS trade association , the spread of fire is caused by liquid boiling polystyrene and its vapors, which would ignite in the cavity formed above the mechanically unsupported insulation lintel (the lower edge of the thermal insulation above a window), which would ignite the The whole thing would be more of a structural defect and the possible cavity could be reduced by the installation of fire bars (non-combustible surrounding mineral wool insulation strips). Despite obvious contradictions in the statement (Item 11a fire propagation through 2.5 m high flames are stopped by the fire bar, item 11b 3.0 m distance between the burning room and fire bar is reduced to 0.5 m of combustible insulation material height) fire bar all appeared two floors according to the ETICS association are sufficient.
In a more extensive statement by the German Institute for Structural Engineering from November 21, 2011, it is also admitted that thermal insulation composite systems with polystyrene insulation panels with large insulation material thicknesses are "critical" in the event of fire exposure and that the fire can spread unhindered; the film report brought "no new knowledge". The flammability is "a well-known fact in the professional world". The fact that fire barriers would only suffice on every second floor and prevent the fire from spreading would have been demonstrated “in original-scale test setups”. The test arrangement shown in the television film does not correspond to the structure according to the working draft for DIN 4102-20 and therefore does not correspond to the fire exposure under real fire conditions.
In December 2011, a minor inquiry from the SPD parliamentary group addressed the risk of facade fires on polystyrene-insulated facades and insufficient or impractical insulation tests. In the answer, it is pointed out that “the federal states are responsible for the area of fire protection, which is part of building regulations” and “In the case of external thermal insulation systems, fire tests and, if necessary, additional large-scale tests must be carried out by the manufacturer to determine whether they are flame retardant and therefore fireproof. ” .
In November 2014, the 126th Building Ministers' Conference (ARGEBAU) decided that additional fire protection should be mandatory for new buildings in the future. Existing buildings do not need to be retrofitted.
The impact resistance is checked with the ball impact test according to ISO 7892. There is, on the one hand, the experiment with a steel ball weighing 1 kg and with a height of fall of 1.02 m (corresponds to 10 joules) and, on the other hand, the experiment with a steel ball weighing 0.5 kg and with a height of fall of 0.61 m ( corresponds to 3 joules). On the basis of the test results, the ETICS is classified in categories I, II or III.
Definition of the usage categories:
- Category I.
- An area close to the ground that is easily accessible to the public and unprotected against impact with hard bodies, but which is not subjected to abnormally heavy use.
- Category II
- An area exposed to shock from objects thrown or kicked, but located in public places where the height of the system limits the magnitude of the shock; or in lower areas where access to the building is primarily made by people who have a reason to be careful.
- Category III
- An area where damage from people or objects thrown or kicked is unlikely.
In Austria, only systems with shock resistance of category I and II may be used, because only these can withstand the hailstorm to be taken into account with sufficient safety.
As a general rule, softer panels achieve better results.
Woodpeckers also regard buildings as their habitat and knock on facades if there are typical hollow noises. Woodpeckers are said to have a good memory, so that they return to discovered places. ETICS facades with insulation panels made of Styrofoam or comparable insulation materials that sound "hollow" when knocked are particularly prone to woodpecker holes.
Thermal insulation composite systems have been in use since the early 1960s. The Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics IBP has been assessing the long-term behavior of ETICS on completed buildings on a regular basis since the 1970s. At the end of 2014, the condition of eleven facades between 29 and 45 years old was checked. In ten cases, the condition was classified as practically free of defects. Purely visual impairments due to contamination or microbial growth were not taken into account. Only in the case of a facade that had been revised with a new coat of paint did minor to major defects occur in places. According to the IBP, the aging behavior and the maintenance effort for facades with ETICS systems are to be assessed similarly to those for conventionally plastered external walls.
The doubling is a process for the renovation of ETICS and serves to meet energy requirements. Another complete system is applied to the existing ETICS, i.e. H. The composite material is not dismantled, but supplemented by an additional layer of adhesive, insulation material, dowels, reinforcement plaster with reinforcement fabric and finishing plaster. This significantly extends the service life of the ETICS.
The dismantling of an ETICS is necessary if it is rebuilt or the building is demolished. It can be done selectively or conventionally.
The preferred approach is selective dismantling. The individual layers of material are removed layer by layer. The advantage is that the individual material fractions are already separated on the construction site. Manual, machine or thermal stripping can be used as a method for separating the individual components.
With conventional dismantling, the ETICS is removed in one go. The resulting demolition material is a heterogeneous mixture. The mixing of the material fractions is unfavorable in terms of disposal. The material mixture is separated in a sorting system for further recycling. High-quality recycling of the demolition materials is only possible to a limited extent.
The following statements refer to the EPS insulation material, which is used in approx. 80% of the ETICS.
In this process, the dismantled materials of an ETICS are first cleaned of coarse dirt such as plaster, mortar and sand. The EPS fraction is then ground in a mill and the resulting grist is dedusted. The EPS granulate is z. B. used for bound EPS fillings, EPS recycling panels, as a lightweight aggregate for concrete or for porosity of masonry bricks.
The selective extraction of expanded polystyrene with the CreaSolv® process is currently not a commercial process. However, the Fraunhofer IVV's pilot plant shows how EPS can be retained in the material cycle in the future. The EPS is dissolved with a selective solvent. Subsequently, foreign matter can be separated from the polymer solution. The polystyrene recovered from the solution can be used again as raw material for the manufacture of new products, which corresponds to recycling in the original sense.
In energy recovery, EPS is used to generate energy through combustion.
In the European internal market, the CE mark is required for the cross-border movement of construction products. The basis for placing thermal insulation composite systems with the CE mark on the market is a European Technical Approval (ETZ) based on the ETAG 004 guideline, and since July 1, 2013 a European Technical Assessment (ETB) based on a European assessment document. ETAG 004 continues to apply as the European evaluation document for ETICS with plaster coating for attachment to concrete and masonry. Separate evaluation documents can be requested for system designs not described there, such as substrates made of wood or surface cladding made of ceramic.
In parallel, national approvals can be used in various EU member states . These regulate the applications in the respective member state, but do not allow CE marking as a basis for the cross-border movement of goods. In addition, EU member states can set national requirements for use in the sense of minimum requirements.
In Austria, the performance requirements and conditions of use of the building materials list ÖE of the Austrian Institute for Building Technology (OIB) must be met.
In Germany, the usability must be proven by a general building authority approval (abZ) or in combination with an ETZ or ETB by means of a use approval . The approval of the German Institute for Structural Engineering (DIBt) describes all the components provided by the system owner and tested in the overall system (adhesive, dowels, insulation, reinforcement layer, external plaster) as well as e.g. B. the properties relevant to fire protection and the protective measures that may have to be implemented.
Object-specific deviations require the approval in individual cases (ZiE) by the highest building authority of the respective federal state.
To obtain a European Technical Assessment and / or an abZ, the necessary system tests are carried out by the manufacturer (system holder). This is the only way to ensure the functionality, safety and durability of an ETICS required by the interaction of the components. The system owner is responsible for maintaining the essential properties of an ETICS. He ensures this through ongoing internal and external monitoring of production. Therefore, only the system components intended by the system owner may be used.
Standards, other regulations
- ETAG 004 Guideline for the European technical approval for external thermal insulation composite systems with plaster layer . (PDF; 3.01 MB)
- ISO 7892 Vertical parts of structures; Test of impact resistance; Impact body and general test methods .
- DIN 18345 VOB procurement and contract regulations for construction works - Part C: General technical contract conditions for construction works (ATV) - thermal insulation composite systems .
- DIN 55699 Application and processing of external thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) with insulating materials made of expanded polystyrene rigid foam (EPS) or mineral wool (MW) .
- ÖNORM B 6400-1 External wall thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) - Part 1: Planning and processing .
- ÖNORM B 6400-2 External wall thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) - Part 2: Products, tests and requirements .
- ÖNORM B 6400-3 External wall thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) - Part 3: Minimum requirements for use .
- SIA 243 Plastered external thermal insulation .
- EN 13499 Thermal insulation materials for buildings - External thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) made of expanded polystyrene - Specification .
- EN 13500 Thermal insulation materials for buildings - External thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) made of mineral wool - Specification .
- EN 13501-1 Classification of building products and types of fire behavior - Part 1: Classification with the results from the tests on fire behavior of building products .
- Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV)
- Facade fire
- Roof insulation
- Perimeter insulation = the thermal insulation between components in contact with the ground and the ground, i.e. below the floor slab and between the ground and the outer cellar wall
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- Additional information