The abbey was founded around 1109 by the hermit Alleaume (Adelelmus of Flanders), a student of Robert von Arbrissel , and Raoul VII, Vice Count of Beaumont-au-Maine , who was responsible for the financing of the monastery. The Viscounts of Beaumont subsequently used the abbey as their burial place.
The Charnie forest was chosen as the location, about 20 kilometers from Raoul's Sainte-Suzanne castle . Hildebert von Lavardin , Bishop of Le Mans 1097–1125, consecrated the monastery church and made the monastery subject to the Benedictine rule .
Étival became one of the richest abbeys in County Maine with an estate of 1,200 acres. In 1511 it was rebuilt after a fire. In 1789 - at that time 14 nuns and six lay people still lived in the monastery - the monastery was closed and sold in 1790. From 1792 the buildings served as a quarry, so that nothing remained of the nave and the monastery. Restoration work was undertaken in the Empire, Pope Pius VII (1800-1823) visited Étival on the occasion of the re-inauguration. In 1809 the parish Étival was incorporated into the municipality of Chemiré.
Today parts of the transept from the 12th century still exist from the old abbey, plus a chapel from the choir and the sacristy . In 1848 some of the graves of the vice counts were rediscovered by archaeologists, the associated Gisants from the 12th to 14th centuries are now in the Musée archéologique de Tessé in Le Mans .
At the beginning of the 20th century, the transept was converted into a chapel, which was consecrated on July 11, 1901. Excavations in 1901 and 1902 made it possible to reconstruct the plan of the monastery, and it was also established that the Romanesque choir was replaced by a Gothic one at the time. The chapel was entered on November 7, 1973 in the supplementary directory of the Monuments historique and was thus listed.
A group of sculptures from the 16th century from the abbey is now in the church of Chemiré-en-Charnie. It is a pietà from the 16th century. It was classified as a Monument historique in 1978 .
Abbesses of Etival
- 1109 Godehilde, founding abbess, previously abbess of Le Ronceray in Angers , sister of Raoul VII.
- 1198 julienne
- 1300 Agnes de Pagana
- 1302 Héloïse de Chemiré, daughter of Robert de Chemiré
- 1310 Jeanne de Brienne († 1323), widow of Guy VIII. De Laval († 1295), daughter of Ludwig von Akkon
- 1347 Marie de Beaumont
- 1371 Thiephaine
- 1374 Béatrix de Broucin (or Broussin)
- 1381 Etiennette des Hayes
- 1420 Béatrix de Sillé
- 1439 Catherine de Tucé
- 1460 Jeanne de La Motte
- 1461 Jeanne de Baurelle
- 1461–1476 Marguerite de Bouillé, resigned in 1476 in favor of Jeanne de Lavals
- 1477 Jeanne de Laval (1449–1513), daughter of Guy II. De Laval-Loué (family list of the Montmorency )
- 1513 Antoinette de Souvre
- 1534 Anne du Bellay
- 1557 Renée d'Aunay
- 1582 Catherine de La Haye
- 1586 Angélique de Cossé
- 1623 Angélique d'Épinay Saint-Luc
- 1627-1660 Claire Neau
- 1653 Marie de Kernavo, Koadjutrix by Claire Neau
- 1675 Charlotte d'Étampes de Valançay († 1714)
- 1714 Charlotte-Madeleine Pezé de Courtalvert
- 1726 Marie-Anne Charlotte de Rabaudange (resigns 1768, † March 1776 in Paris)
- 1770 Justine de Volserre des Adrets
- 1773 Madeleine de Bernart de Courmesnil, 1789 in office as the last abbess of Etival
The year numbers indicate a point in time at which the respective abbess is documented.
Sources and literature
- Association culturelle pour la sauvegarde de la chapelle d'Étival-en-Charnie, Michel Leturmy, Chemiré-en-Charnie.
- Archives et bibliothèque du Musée de l'auditoire, Association des Amis de Sainte-Suzanne.
- Patrimoine de France website and the MH Joconde database .
- Abbé Angot, Les vicomtes du Maine , in Bulletin de la Commission historique et archéologique de la Mayenne, 1914, No. 30, pp. 180-232, 320-342, 404-424. lamayenne.fr (PDF; 300 kB). (French)
- Michel Niaussat, Une austère solitude: Étival-en-Charnie , in: Maine découvertes No. 39 2003/2004, Éditions de la Reinette, Le Mans.
- Vie de M. Marquis-Ducastel, doyen rural d'Évron et du Sonnois, curé de Sainte-Suzanne et de Marolles-lès-Brault , pp. 75–77, Relations de M. Marquis-Ducastel avec les religieuses d'Étival- en-Charnie , Abbé F. Pichon, Ed. Leguicheux-Gallienne, Le Mans 1873.
- Entry No. PM72000542 in the Base Palissy of the French Ministry of Culture (French)
- Entry No. 000SC004534 in the Base Joconde of the French Ministry of Culture (French)
- Entry No. 000SC004535 in the Base Joconde of the French Ministry of Culture (French)
- Entry No. 000SC004532 in the Base Joconde of the French Ministry of Culture (French)
- Entry No. 000SC004533 in the Base Joconde of the French Ministry of Culture (French)
- Entry no. PA00109711 in the Base Mérimée of the French Ministry of Culture (French)
- Entry No. PM72000128 in the Base Palissy of the French Ministry of Culture (French)