The construction method generally describes the defined arrangement of structural or structural elements. The term is often used synonymously with type of construction. In contrast, the construction process is to be distinguished , which is the process and method of working in the manufacture of a construction or a building.
Depending on the use in mechanical engineering, construction or urban planning, the term has different meanings, which are explained below.
In mechanical engineering , the relationships between building structures are described using modular , series , integral and differential design . The composite and lightweight design specifically combines materials with different properties (e.g. hardness and toughness) or density. The sandwich construction is a combination in which the top layers are separated by a light material (e.g. plastic) or a discontinuous structure (e.g. webs).
In electrical engineering , the structure of electronic devices is classified according to various criteria:
- according to the degree of elementization of the device structure (complete or compact design, assembly or modular design, modular design) or the elementary design.
- according to the type of division of the device structure (slide-in construction, casing construction, folding construction)
- according to the way the device structure is classified in the environment (built-in device, floor-standing device, cabinet device, hand-held device, etc.)
- Building material : Timber construction , masonry construction , combined construction
- Construction : lightweight construction , solid construction
- Assembly of components : precast construction , large panel construction , room cell construction
- Structure : frame construction , bulkhead construction
In contrast to technical construction , the term design relates to the appearance or the creative and spatial concept of a building.
In urban planning , the term construction method describes the position of the building in relation to the lateral property boundaries. It is a term of public building law that is defined in more detail in Section 22 of the Building Use Ordinance (BauNVO). One differentiates:
- Open construction method - development of land with free-standing buildings (e.g. single or semi-detached houses or groups of houses) that maintain a clearance area to the lateral property boundary.
- Closed construction - development in which the buildings are built next to each other on the side of the property and in this way form a closed development when viewed from the access road. This includes u. a. the perimeter block development .
- Deviating construction method - mixed form between open and closed construction, for example to achieve a one-sided border development .
In a development plan , determinations can be made on permissible construction methods. The legal basis for this is Section 22 BauNVO. In addition, it is also possible to determine the location of the building in relation to the front or rear property boundary.