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Spider flower (Tarenaya hassleriana, Syn .: Cleome hassleriana)

Spider flower ( Tarenaya hassleriana , Syn .: Cleome hassleriana )

Nuclear eudicotyledons
Eurosiden II
Order : Cruciferous (Brassicales)
Family : Cleomaceae
Scientific name

The Cleomaceae are a family of plants in the order of the cruciferous (Brassicales).


Cleomella hillmanii ; you can see the two fused carpels, which are lifted far out of the flower by the gynophore
Illustration from A flora of North America , panel 22 from Polanisia dodecandra

Vegetative characteristics

They are (often annual) herbaceous plants or shrubs . Some species smell bad.

The alternate leaves are arranged in a petiole and a leaf blade. The mostly compound leaf blades are often three- to seven - part palmate . There are stipules present.

Generative characteristics

It forms racemose inflorescences with bracts .

The hermaphrodite, four-fold flowers are radial symmetry to zygomorphic . They have four free sepals . The four free petals are nailed more or less strongly. There are six stamens per flower , with the exception of Polanisia , where there are up to 20. The gynoeceum consists of two overgrown carpels , which are lifted far out of the flower by a long gynophore . The stylus ends in a two-lobed scar.

Usually double capsule fruits or cleft fruits are formed.

Systematics and distribution

The Cleomaceae family was established by Pawel Fjodorowitsch Gorjaninow .

The Cleomaceae family occurs in warm to tropical climates . The main distribution area is the Neotropic .

In the Cleomaceae family there are eight to twelve genera and about 300 species. How broad the genus Cleome is to be grasped is controversial:

  • Buhsea Bunge (sometimesincorporatedinto Cleome ): There may only be one kind; it occurs in Asia.
  • Carsonia Greene (is also placed with Cleome ): The basic chromosome number is x = 16. The genus contains only one species:
  • Cleome L. (incl. Physostemon Mart. ): The 20 or so species are common in the Old World, three of them (also) in Europe. The basic chromosome number is x = 10.
  • Cleomella DC. : The approximately ten species occur from the southern USA to Mexico. The basic chromosome number is x = 20.
  • Cleoserrata H.H.Iltis : The five or so species are distributed from Mexico to South America; the basic chromosome number is x = 12.
  • Corynandra Sprengel (Syn .: Arivela Raf. ): The approximately 15 species since 2014 are distributed in Africa, Asia and Australia, one of them also occurs in China.
  • Dactylaena Schrad. ex Schult. f. : The approximately six species occur in Haiti , Brazil and Argentina.
  • Gynandropsis DC. (is also put to Cleome ): The two or so species are also found in Southwest Asia , for example. You are one year old. The basic chromosome number is x = 10 or 17. This subheading includes:
    • African cabbage ( Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq. ): It is native to tropical and southern Africa, tropical Asia, China, Yemen and Oman. It is a neophyte in North, Central and South America .
  • Haptocarpum Ule : It contains only one species:
  • Hemiscola Raf. (is also put to Cleome ): The six or so species are distributed from Mexico to South America. The basic chromosome number is x = 10.
  • Oxystylis Torr. & Frém. : It contains only one type:
    • Oxystylis lutea Torr. & Frém. : This unpleasant smelling annual with small yellow flowers clustered in clusters of side inflorescences occurs in California (Death Valley area) and in Nevada.
  • Peritoma DC. (Syn .: Isomeris Nuttall ): The roughly six shrubby, annual or short-lived perennial species in North America (USA, Mexico) are also included in Cleome . The basic chromosome number is x = 10. With the types:
    • Peritoma arborea (Nutt.) HHIltis : yellow-flowered, evergreen shrub with pendulous capsules. It is found in three varieties in the southwestern United States and western and northwestern Mexico.
    • Peritoma jonesii (JFMacbride) HHIltis : Annual plant with five-part leaves and golden yellow flowers. It occurs in Arizona, California and Baja California .
    • Peritoma lutea (Hook.) Raf. : Annual plant with 5-fold leaves and light yellow flowers. It occurs in the United States and Baja California.
    • Peritoma multicaulis (DC.) HHIltis : Annual plant with small, loosely standing, purple to white flowers and 3-fold leaves with 1 mm wide leaflets. It occurs in the United States from Wyoming to Texas and in Mexico.
    • Peritoma platycarpa (Torr.) HHIltis : Annual plant with yellow flowers, triple leaves and pendulous, glandular hairy capsules. It occurs in Oregon, California, Idaho, and Nevada.
    • Peritoma serrulata (Pursh) DC. : Annual plant with densely packed purple to white flowers and 3-fold leaves with leaflets over 5 mm wide. It occurs in Canada and the United States.
  • Podandrogyne Ducke : With about 26 species; they occur between Costa Rica and Bolivia or Brazil.
  • Polanisia Raf. (Syn .: Cristatella Nuttall ): The six or so species are common in North America. The basic chromosome number is x = 10. With the types:
    • Polanisia dodecandra (L.) DC. : It occurs in several subspecies in Canada, the United States, and northern Mexico. One subspecies, Polanisia dodecandra (Linnaeus) de Candolle subsp. trachysperma (Torrey & A. Gray) HH Polecat , is a neophyte in Italy.
    • Polanisia erosa (Nutt.) HHIltis : It occurs in two subspecies in Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana.
    • Polanisia jamesii (Torrey & A.Gray) HHIltis : It occurs in the central United States from Minnesota in the north to Texas in the south.
    • Polanisia tenuifolia Torrey & A.Gray : It is found in Georgia and from Florida to Mississippi.
    • Polanisia uniglandulosa (Cav.) DC. : It occurs in Mexico, New Mexico and Texas.
  • Spider flowers ( Tarenaya Raf. ): The 33 or so species are common in South America. The basic chromosome number is x = 10. This belongs here:
    • Garden spider flower ( Tarenaya hassleriana (Chodat) HHIltis ): ornamental plant
    • Pale spider flower ( Tarenaya spinosa (Jacq.) Raf. ): It is not used as an ornamental plant, but horticulturally equated with Tarenaya hassleriana (Syn .: Cleome hassleriana ).
  • Wislizenia Engelm. : There are about three types. The basic chromosome number is x = 10. With the types:



  • Eric H. Roalson, Jocelyn C. Hall, James P. Riser II, Warren M. Cardinal-McTeague, Theodore S. Cochrane, Kenneth J. Sytsma: A revision of generic boundaries and nomenclature in the North American cleomoid clade (Cleomaceae). In: Phytotaxa , Volume 205, Issue 3, April 2015, pp. 129–144. ISSN 1179-3163. Abstract doi : 10.11646 / phytotaxa.205.3.1
  • Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (Ed.): An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society , Volume 161, 2009, pp. 105-121. doi : 10.1111 / j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x
  • Jocelyn C. Hall: Systematics of Capparaceae and Cleomaceae: An evaluation of the generic delimitations of Capparis and Cleome using plastid DNA sequence data. In: Canadian Journal of Botany-Revue Canadienne de Botanique , Volume 86, 2008, pp. 682-696. doi : 10.1139 / B08-026
  • Luis A. Inda, Pilar Torrecilla, Pedro Catalán, Thirza Ruiz-Zapata: Phylogeny of Cleome L. and its close relative Podandrogyne Ducke and Polanisia Raf. (Cleomoideae, Cleomaceae) based on analysis of nuclear ITS sequences and morphology. In: Plant Systematics and Evolution , Volume 274, 2008, pp. 111-126. doi : 10.1007 / s00606-008-0026-y
  • Mingli Zhang, Gordon C. Tucker: Cleomaceae. , P. 431 - online with the same text as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven, Deyuan Hong (Ed.): Flora of China. Volume 7: Menispermaceae through Capparaceae. Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis 2008, ISBN 978-1-930723-81-8 . (Section systematics)
  • David John Mabberley: Mabberley's Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses . 3rd edition, Cambridge University Press 2008, ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4 . (Genera with species numbers and distribution)

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f Cleomaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Gordon C. Tucker, Staria S. Vanderpool: Cleomaceae Berchtold & J. Presl. , Pp. 199-214 - the same text online as the printed work , In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Ed.): Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 7: Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford, 2010, ISBN 978-0-19-531822-7 .
  3. a b c d e David John Mabberley: Mabberley's Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses . 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press 2008. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4
  4. ^ Theodore S. Cochrane, Hugh H. Iltis: Studies in Cleomaceae VII: Five new combinations in Corynandra, an earlier name for Arivela. In: Novon , Volume 23, 2014, pp. 21-26. doi : 10.3417 / 2013023
  5. Jaakko Jalas, Juha Suominen: Atlas florae europaeae . Volume 9 (Paeoniaceae to Capparaceae). Page 106, Helsinki 1991. ISBN 951-9108-08-4 .

Web links

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