Friedrich (Bohemia)

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Friedrich ( Bedřich ) (* around 1142 ; † March 25, 1189 ) was Duke of Bohemia from the Přemyslid family .

Bedřich's reign was characterized by the domestic political weakness of the ruler, who was able to prevail in battles against the Moravian branch of the Přemyslids.


Bedřich was the eldest son of King Vladislav II of Bohemia from his first marriage to Gertrud of Austria, daughter of Margrave Leopold III. He was installed as a duke by his father Vladislav II in 1173 . The king, however, had neither the consent of the Czech nobility nor the Emperor Frederick I sought. The emperor in particular was of the opinion that it was up to him to decide who would succeed the Bohemian crown. Both sides then deposed Bedřich in a process in Nuremberg and designated Udalrich (Oldřich), a son of Soběslav I , as duke. However, the latter handed over the office to Soběslav II , who had already been designated as Duke and held it from 1174 to 1180.

Bedřich had to serve at the emperor's court. So it was up to him to raise an army for the train to Italy led by his brother Oldřich. The army of 60,000 men attacked Austria twice and was notorious for its looting of monasteries and churches . During negotiations in Venice in 1177, the emperor was instructed by the Pope to depose Soběslav II, who was responsible for the looting, and to install Bedřich in his place. In addition, it is assumed that by taking this step the emperor tried to prevent the further consolidation of the Bohemian rule in Moravia, which had been promoted by Soběslav.

With the help of Margrave Konrad III. Otto von Znaim (Konrád Znojemský) and Duke Leopold V and their German mercenaries , Bedřich marched into Moravia and Bohemia and conquered Prague in 1178 . With the support of the emperor, the Bohemian nobility re-elected Bedřich as duke in 1178. Soběslav tried to regain power. When Bedřich was called by the Emperor to the Diet in Worms, Soběslav called his followers and tried to conquer the Prague Castle. First he won the Battle of Loděnice , but was then destroyed by the returning Bedřich with the help of Konrad's cavalry on January 27, 1179 near Nové Město (now part of Prague).

This second term of office was marked by power struggles with members of the Moravian family such as Konrad Otto, Prince of Znojmo. In 1182 Friedrich was chased out of the country by Konrad. He was only allowed to regain his throne on the orders of the emperor. The emperor himself tried everything to weaken the power of the Bohemian crown. He made Moravia a margravate , subordinated it to the empire and thus strengthened the princes. The elevation of the bishops of Prague to imperial princes was also intended to further undermine the position of the Přemyslids . Bedřich tried to counteract this by appointing his younger brother Ottokar I Přemysl as margrave of Moravia in 1179 .


Bedřich married Elizabeth of Hungary after 1157, daughter of Gézas II of Hungary from the Arpáden family , and Euphrosina of Kiev , daughter of Grand Duke Mstislaw I. Vladimirovich of Kiev

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Cosmas of Prague : Chronica Boemorum
predecessor Office successor
Vladislav II. Duke of Bohemia
Sobeslav II.
Sobeslav II. Duke of Bohemia
Conrad III. Otto