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Hapkido Championship in Korea
Korean spelling
Korean alphabet : 합기도
Hanja : 合氣道
Revised Romanization : Hapgido
McCune-Reischauer : Hapkido

Hapkido (Korean pronunciation: [ hapk͈ido ]; also Hap Ki Do ) is a Korean martial art that has its origins in the Japanese Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu . Through the influence of other fighting styles, Hapkido developed into an independent martial art that is shaped by a comprehensive curriculum across all styles.

Particularly characteristic are the numerous lever techniques, which together with throwing, kicking and punching techniques form the focus in all Hapkido styles. Some styles also teach the handling of different weapons. The movements in Hapkido are mainly carried out in a circular and flowing manner.

Hapkido is the most popular Korean martial art after Taekwondo and is trained worldwide. The name for a Hapkido practitioner is Hapkido-in , where the suffix “ in ” is the Korean term for “human”.

Name meaning

Hapkido on Hangeul

The word "Hapkido" is made up of the following syllables:

  • Hap ( Kor. , ) means “to unite”, “connect” or “to coordinate” and stands for the harmony of body, mind and soul.
  • Ki ( , ) means "life energy" with the three aspects
    • inner and outer strength (personal charisma and physical fitness)
    • Presence of Mind
    • mental balance
  • Do ( , ) means “way”, “principle” or “teaching”.

Together, for example, Hapkido can be translated as "path of harmonious energy" or "teaching of the development of life energy to a balance".

The Japanese reading of the same Hanja is Aikidō , an independent martial art. However, Hapkido did not emerge from Aikidō, but shares the same origin with it.


The beginnings

Masters Choi Yong-sul and Ji Han-jae in a group photo
Hapkido in
South Korea in the 1960s
A scissor kick (Gawi-Chagi)

The development of Hapkido began in the 1910s when Korea fell under Japanese rule . The Korean Choi Yong-sul (1904–1986) was brought to the Japanese city of Moji around 1912, at the age of about eight, according to his own memory. In the following decades, until the end of Japanese rule over Korea, he learned according to his own statement, the Japanese Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu under the samurai Takeda Sōkaku (1859-1943). While there is no evidence that Choi actually trained directly under Takeda, it is indisputable that he learned Jiu Jitsu .

In this context it is worth mentioning that Ueshiba Morihei (1883-1969), the founder of Aikido , also trained under Takeda . Because of this, Hapkido and Aikidō share the same roots.

Besides Choi, other Koreans had learned Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu in Japan, including Dr. Chang In-mok (born 1912). After the Japanese colonial era was over in 1945, like Choi, he returned to the Korean city of Daegu and taught martial arts there for some time. He was mainly a doctor of oriental medicine and, unlike Choi, produced only a few students.

Choi Yong-sul called the martial art he had learned first as Yawara , the old Japanese name for Jūjutsu. Due to his long stay in Japan, after his return to Korea he initially spoke about 70% Japanese and only about 30% Korean. While he changed little or nothing in the techniques, he changed the name of his martial art several times. So he called them Yu Sul (German "soft technique", this is the direct translation of Jūjutsu into Korean), Yu Kwon Sul ("soft fist technique") and Hapki Yu Kwon Sul ("soft fist technique in unity with Ki").

Choi Yong-sul opened the Hapki Yu Kwon Sul Dojang on February 12, 1951 in Daegu together with his first student Suh Bok-sup (revised Romanization: Seo Bok-seob) . Suh Bok-sup claims that he and Choi coined the term Hapkido as the short form of Hapki Yu Kwon Sul in 1959 , and Choi himself said that he called his art Hapkido.

One of Choi's first pupils was Ji Han-jae (born 1936) from 1953 , who was to become very important for the development, history and spread of Hapkido.

Further development of Hapkido

Ji Han-jae first founded the An Moo Kwan school in Daegu in 1956 (revised Romanization: "Anmu-Gwan") and a year later in Seoul the Sung Moo Kwan (revised Romanization: "Seongmu-Gwan"). Kwan means something like "school", but can also stand for "association" or "style". In the following years he had numerous students, some of whom founded their own styles. He also gained worldwide fame as an actor in several movies, including a long fight scene with Bruce Lee in his film " My Last Fight ".

It is not only thanks to Ji's technical skills and innovations that Hapkido first became known within Korea and later internationally. He served as President Park Chung-hee's bodyguard from 1962 and eventually became the chief Hapkido trainer of his security forces. He has also taught the Korean Police, Korean Special Forces and the Military Academy. As a result, he had good political connections that he used to spread Hapkido.

Well-known students of Ji Han-jae included Myeong Jae-nam, Kim Sou-bong, Kwon Tae-man, Yoo Young-woo, Oh Se-lim, Hwang Deok-kyoo, Kim Yong-jin and Jeong Won-seon.

Another student of Choi Yong-sul in Daegu was Kim Moo-hong (Hangeul: 김무홍, Revised Romanization: Kim Mu-hong. His name is romanized with many other irregular spellings: Kim Moo-hyun, Kim Mu-hyun, Kim Mu- wung, Kim Moo-woong, Kim Moo-moong.) Kim Moo-hong was a specialist in foot techniques, which he is said to have perfected in a Seoul temple. The name of the temple, its teachers there and the martial art from which these kicks are supposed to come from are unknown. Since fewer foot techniques are used in traditional Japanese martial arts than in traditional Korean ones, such as Taekkyon , Choi Yong-sul taught comparatively few foot techniques.

When Kim Moo-hong spent eight months in Ji Han-jae's Sung Moo Kwan in 1961, he developed the foot technique repertoire with him that is now taught in most of the Hapkido styles. For this reason, modern Hapkido contains considerably more kicks than the original style of Choi Yong-sul (see chapter Hapkiyusul ). It was only through the influence of Ji Han-jae and Kim Moo-hong that a new Korean martial art emerged, which differs significantly from the Japanese Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu. In 1961 Kim Moo-hong founded the Sin Moo Kwan Hapkido Dojang ( Sin Moo Kwan for short ) in the Jong Myo district of Seoul . There Suh In-Hyuk, one of the later founders of Kuk Sool Won , became his student.

Development of other Hapkido styles

The original martial art of Choi Yong-sul differed only slightly - if at all - from Daito-Ryu. It was "Koreanized" by Ji Han-jae and Kim Moo-hong. This gave rise to two main lines of Hapkido: one goes back to Choi, the other to Ji. Since the late 1950s, many students from Choi Yong-sul and Ji Han-jae started their own schools. Many of the schools differed little from each other and today there are still many styles that are very similar.

Since the 1960s, significant styles have developed that can be clearly distinguished from one another. The most important of these styles are described in the Styles chapter .

Influence on Taekwondo

Hapkido not only borrowed techniques from Taekwondo , it also influenced this martial art in turn. In 1972, in the Canadian city of Toronto , the two martial arts came together, which was to have a great influence on Taekwondo. One of Choi Yong-sul's students was Chung Ki-tae (also spelled Chung Kee-tae), who was born in Daegu in 1939. In 1955, at the age of 16, he received his 1st Dan in Taekwondo. In 1956 he started his Hapkido lessons. Chung later emigrated to Toronto, Canada, where Taekwondo pioneer Choi Hong-hi also emigrated in 1972 .

In the same year, a student of Choi Hong-hi, Park Jung-soo, wanted to move to Toronto. Choi then asked Chung to leave Toronto because he wanted the city for his student Park. Thereupon a meeting between Choi and Chung took place, at which Chung showed various Hapkido techniques. The two men then made an agreement: Choi Hong-hi was allowed to reproduce these techniques in the new edition of his book Taekwon-Do, the Korean art of self-defense . In return, he declared Chung "a good taekwondo man" and told him he could live anywhere he wanted. The corresponding chapter in Choi Hong-his's book ("Seventh Part - Self-Defense Techniques (hosin sul)") contains photos of Chung and begins with the sentence

"These techniques are not only the most interesting, but also the most advanced Taekwon-Do techniques."

- Choi Hong-hi : “Taekwon-Do, the Korean art of self-defense”, p. 465

Chung Ki-tae stayed in Toronto and continued to work with the International Taekwon-Do Federation of Choi Hong-hi.

Korean teachers in Germany

Kim Sou-bong

Kim Sou-bong (9th Dan, died 2011) was a student of the Dae Han Hapkido School of Ji Han-jae. He came to Germany in 1964 and became one of the first Hapkido teachers here. He taught for a year in Dortmund and the surrounding area, then went to America in 1965 and returned to Germany (Mülheim / Ruhr) in 1968. He influenced many of the first generation of Hapkido black belts in Germany as well as in neighboring German-speaking countries. Master Kim taught Hapkido for decades with a focus on the Ruhr area and the Rhine-Main area . Most of the Hapkido schools in Austria can also be traced back to him. His first Hapkido course there took place in 1974. His system, the Hapkido teaching system Kim Sou-bong , is still taught today.

Pak In-shuk

Pak In-shuk (1938–1995) came to the Ruhr area in 1964 as a miner. At this point he was a fourth dan in the Kuk Sool Won Hapkido. He joined the training group around Kim Sou-bong, but left due to disagreements. In contrast to Kim Sou-bong, Pak first learned from Choi Yong-sul and opened his own school in Busan as early as 1956 . A little later he switched to the Kuk Sool Won. When Kim Sou-bong emigrated to the USA in 1965, Pak took over the regular training in Germany. In doing so, he decisively shaped Hapkido in the North Rhine-Westphalian Hapkido Association. In 1967 Pak left Germany and moved to Canada, where he established several Kuk-Sool-Won schools. There he developed his own system, called Kong Shin Bup Hapkido , which was essentially based on the Kuk-Sool-Won curriculum.

Karl-Heinz Kickuth (died 2003), Pak's top-ranking German student, took over the training after Pak's departure from Germany and was taught by the Kuk-Sool-Won teachers Hong Ki-bok and Oh Kun-kyo himself. 1973 Kickuth was awarded the 4th Dan. Later, in 1984, Pak In-shyuk returned to Germany and awarded Kickuth the 7th Dan in the Kong Shin Bup in recognition of his services to German Hapkido. Pak did not succeed in establishing his system in Germany, so that Kong Shin Bup is mainly known in North America today and is led there by Rudy W. Timmerman. Timmerman was named heir to this system while Pak was still alive, while Pak developed a new style. However, since Pak died unexpectedly of heart failure in 1995, his new development Tae Keuk Do remained largely unknown.

Ko Myong

Ko Myong (born 1953) has lived in Europe since 1978. He started teaching Kung Jung Mu Sul Hapkido in Germany in 1983 . Since 1993 he has called his style Shinson Hapkido . He trained many Hapkido students and thus spread his style quite widely in Germany. He's also taught by students in Belgium, Switzerland and Denmark. Typical characteristics of Shinson Hapkido are quite large, wide movements, animal hyeong and hand hyeong (hyeong are fixed sequences of movements without a partner, see chapter Hyeong ). In addition, Master Ko attaches great importance to the community of the trainees.

More Korean masters

Master Song Il-hak lived and taught in Offenbach since 1970. First together with Master Kim, Sou-bong later the two separated and each taught his own style.

Yoo Kyung-soon (1946–1989) taught in Kassel from 1973 to 1989. Among other things, this resulted in a Hapkido school in Hamburg. Master Choi Kil-bong (born 1962) has been running the Kassel School since 1990. He won schools in Frankfurt and Weiskirchen as well as in other European countries for his Hapkido. Daehanminguk Hapkido attaches great importance to kicks and punches in training in addition to the classic throwing and lever techniques. They are taught quite intensively. The techniques are dynamic and move into smaller and smaller movements as the training progresses.


Hapkido students practice throwing and holding in dojang.


Despite the large number of Hapkido styles, there are overarching similarities. Hapkido is designed as a martial art that focuses on defense techniques ("Hoshin-sul"). These techniques first teach the Hapkido principles, mostly as a defense reaction to a large number of stylized attacks, and train the application and interaction of lever techniques, throws, sweeps, blows, kicks and kicks. Advanced hapkidoin also use weapon techniques and learn how to use these techniques freely and intuitively.


Basic techniques ("Gibon-sul") serve primarily to condition technical and conditional skills, which are essential for the Hosin-sul area and ensure that even demanding exercises can be trained without endangering one's own or partner. Basic techniques can be trained through isolated (partner) exercises, but also through complex forms of movement ("Hyeong").

Techniques from the following areas are taught (the terms may differ depending on the style):

Breathing Techniques ( Ho Heup Beop )

  • Breathing techniques are first practiced consciously and in isolation as part of the warm-up training. For example, they should increase physical performance, promote concentration and focus strength.

Fall School ( Nakbeop )

  • The fall school is a basic requirement for the safe practice of throwing techniques and accompanies the hapkidoin from the beginning. In addition to roles, fall techniques and falls are practiced. Experienced hapkidoins also train fall school techniques over obstacles.

Fist Techniques ( Gwon Sul )

  • Fist techniques are trained in isolation on punch pads, on the partner and in free combat. They can be used as a straight line, oscillator, hook or joint.

Other hand techniques ( Su Gisul )

  • The training method for hand techniques is similar to that of fist techniques. Hand techniques enable differentiated attacks on physical weak points. Cross-styles, hand-edge and forearm strikes, palm strikes, hand kickbacks and elbow techniques as well as finger stabs are taught. The hand techniques can also include defensive movements. According to the Hapkido principles, attacks are usually gently derived or continued instead of being blocked hard .

Kick ( Bal Chagi ) and foot techniques ( Chok Sul )

  • You can kick your feet while standing, on the ground or jumping. In most styles, kicks to the head and twisted variants are also practiced. In Hapkido, as in other Korean martial arts, kicks are very important.

Lever ( Kkyeok Gi )

  • Lever techniques involve a high risk of injury and are therefore initially trained in simple partner exercises. Lever techniques are an essential feature in Hapkido. Typical examples are hand and arm levers, leg levers and also neck levers.

Litters ( Deonjigi )

  • Throws are also an important part of Hapkido. A variety of throws are initiated by levering joints. Hip and shoulder throws as well as leg sweeps are regular training focuses.

Weapon Techniques ( Mugi Sul )

In some styles, weapon techniques are added, which are often taught by means of forms of movement and are used by advanced students for training the Hosin-sul :

  • Short stick ( Danbong , 단봉, usually around 30–40 cm)
  • medium-length stick ( young bong , 중봉, usually 0.80-1.20 m)
  • Long stick ( Jangbong , 장봉, usually around 1.60–2.00 m)
  • Walking stick ( nibong , 니봉 or jipangi 지팡이)
  • Sword ( Geom , 검)
  • Fan ( Buchae , 부채)
  • Bondage techniques ( Pobak Sul ) with belt ( Tti ) or rope.
  • Knife ( cal , 칼)


Children's training in South Korea

Unlike in Taekwondo, for example, forms ("Hyeong") are not an original part of Hapkido. Styles and organizations that refer directly to Choi Yong-sul (Hapkiyusul) or Ji Han-jae (Sin Moo) (e.g. Jung Ki Kwan, Jin Jung Kwan and Hapkidowon) often do not teach classical forms. In contrast, styles that are in the tradition of the brothers Suh In-hyuk (Kuk Sool Won) and Seo In-sun (Hanminjok) mostly also teach forms (e.g. Hanmudo, Mu Sool Won, Kong Shin Bup).


The free fight ("Daeryeon", often also written Taeryon ) in Hapkido is in most styles a training and examination component and possibly a competitive discipline . Due to the large number of associations, there is no uniform set of rules. However, the use of punches and kicks is mandatory. Throws, sweeps and sometimes ground fighting including lever techniques are still allowed in many styles. The contact hardness and the extent of protective equipment vary, as do the victory conditions.


In the break test ("Gyeokpa"), the functionality of a punch or kick should be proven. Due to the high material consumption (e.g. spruce wood, bricks, roof tiles, river pebbles), fracture tests are not carried out in regular training, but rather in demonstrations as a show element or as an individual competition at tournaments.


In general, competition ("Si-hap") plays a subordinate role in Hapkido. However, some of the larger associations hold tournaments regularly, often open to all styles of Hapkido. Characterizing disciplines are:

  • Free fight
  • Technique (defense techniques, kicks, fall school)
  • to form
  • Break tests
  • show

Graduation system

Most Hapkido graduation systems have ten Kup and ten Dan grades. This differs from style to style. The Hankido graduation system, for example, contains twelve Kup grades.

Masters are mostly called Sabeom (-nim) (사범 (님), 師範 (任) "masters") in Hapkido . The head of a school is called Gwanjang (-nim) (관장 (님), 館長 (任), "headmaster", see also under Kwan ). There are also the terms Chong-Gwanjang (-nim) (grandmaster), Gyosa (-nim) (assistant to the teacher, mostly from 1st Dan) and others.

The head of a style is called doju (-nim) (도주 (님), 道 主 (任)). The literal translation is "Master (Ju) of the way (Do)", in the figurative sense it is translated as "Keeper of the way". This term is mainly used in the styles that go back directly to Choi Yong-sul and Ji Han-jae.


Some of the styles derived from Daito Ryu Aiki Jujutsu.

There are different styles of Hapkido, which differ in their philosophy and technique. In most styles, the combative aspect of self-defense is considered important. But there are also styles in which togetherness in the community is in the foreground.

Historically relevant styles

Jung Ki Hapkido

In 1974 Lim Hyun-soo opened the Jung Ki Kwan school , from which the style name Jung Ki Hapkido is derived. In 1976 Choi Yong-sul graduated from Dojang and taught Jung Ki Kwan for the rest of his life. Lim was one of only four students to be awarded the ninth dan by Choi.

Jung Ki Hapkido is taught to this day according to Choi Yong-sul's intention to teach an effective and consistent method of self-defense. For example, arms and shins are specifically hardened in order to condition the body. It is further emphasized that an applicable defense is not determined by the number of techniques. Acrobatic jumps are refused. There are no sporting competitions.


In Hapkiyusul , Hapkido is carried on by Choi Yong-sul. It can therefore be considered the most original style of Hapkido.

The style was named Hapkiyusul on the initiative of Kim Yun-sang (김윤상, born 1934) in 1987, one year after Choi's death. Kim is one of the four students who received the 9th dan from Choi Yong-sul. He already had 5th Dan in Ji Han-jae's organization when he wanted to train with Choi in 1973. He was only admitted to training with Choi after he had given up his dangrade and initially wore the white belt. He received the 9th Dan in 1984. It was not until 2002 that he was granted the status of the third dojunim of Choi's family.

Kim uses the designation Hapkiyusul to distinguish the teaching of Choi Yong-sul from that of "mainstream Hapkido" and has passed it on to his students unchanged since then.

For the promise to carry on the techniques and principles unchanged, he received authorization from Choi to include his name in the school name. The first part of Choi's first name (Yong) was integrated, so the school is called Yong Sul Kwan .

All techniques taught are passed on with the indication that they represent pure Daito-Ryu Aikijūjutsu. The use of the Hapki (Japanese Aiki ) principle is accordingly of great importance .

In contrast to other Hapkido styles, high kicks only play a very minor role. The targets of foot techniques are therefore mostly the legs and vital points of the lower torso.

Sin Moo Kwan

The Sin Moo Kwan (신 무관, 新 武館) school was founded in 1961 by Kim Moo-hong, a student of Choi Yong-sul and Ji Han-haes (see chapter Further development of Hapkido ). Sometimes Sin Moo Kwan Hapkido Dojang is also given as a name . The Sin in Sin Moo Kwan means “new” and should not be confused with the Sin in Sin Moo Hapkido, which means “spirit”. Suh In-Hyuk, who later founded the Kuk Sool Won , was a student of Kim Moo-hong at Sin Moo Kwan.

Sin Moo Hapkido

Sin Moo Hapkido (신무, 神武. German for "Spiritual Martial Art of Hapkido") has been the name of the Hapkido style of Ji Han-jae since 1984.

Ji began training under Choi Yong-sul in 1949 at the age of 13 and was the 14th student in chronological order to achieve a dang graduation under Choi. Until 1956, Ji was a direct student of Choi and the bearer of the 3rd Dan. According to his own account, however, Ji learned how to use various weapons, indigenous Korean kicks and the development of Ki from a man whom he calls "Taoist Lee". In Ji's understanding, Ki is nothing more than adrenaline, which develops physical, mental and healing strength. Ji learned Taoist meditation from a woman he called "grandmother".

Master Ji renamed his style several times; his first dojang was founded in 1956 under the name An Moo Kwan . Together with Kim Moo-hong he formed many of the kicks common in Hapkido today. Ji also claims to have introduced short and long stick techniques as well as walking stick techniques into Hapkido. He coined and spread the term "Hapkido" itself.

Kuk Sool Won

According to various statements, Kuk Sool Won was founded either in 1958 by Suh In-hyuk (also Seo In-hyeok) or in 1961 by his brother Seo In-sun (also Suh In-sun). High-ranking Dan bearers left the World Kuk Sool Association of Kuk Sa Nim Suh In-Hyuk and founded spin-offs. One such spin-off is the Mu Sool Won Association in America, founded in 2009 by Lee Byung-In, a 9th Dan KSW. The learning system was adopted exactly.


Hankido (literally "Korean Way of Ki") was developed in the 1980s by Myong Jae-nam (1938–1999). Since Myong was one of the pioneers of Hapkido, his style spread quickly. He had been a student of Ji Han-jae since 1958 and founded the Hanguk Hapgi Hwe ("Korean Hapki Association") in 1969 , which existed until 1973. The successor organization is the International Hapkido Federation . For the first time, Hankido was officially presented at the first International HKD Games in Seoul in 1990 .

Hankido is a style that has the greatest similarities to Aikido of all Hapkido directions. Myong made contacts with the headquarters of the Japanese Aikido Federation and exchanged techniques with them, after which he became president of the Korean branch of the "World Aikido Federation".

The three principles of Hankido are circle (Won, 圓), flow (Yu, 流) and harmony (Hwa, 和). There are 12 basic techniques that can be learned up to the first dan.

Myong had the 10th dan and is called Kuksanim .

Jin Jung Kwan

The Jin Jung Kwan style was founded by Kim Myung-yong (born 1942). He started his training in Sung Moo Kwan by Ji Han-jae in 1959 and founded his own style in 1967. Master Kim lives and teaches in America. Master Lee Chang-soo represents and teaches the Jin-Jung-Kwan style of Master Kim in Korea and internationally. The execution of the techniques is relatively short and hard. The joints are primarily attacked. You are brought into a stretched or angled position and suddenly loaded. The aim is to fix the attacker directly or to incapacitate them. The style renounces beauty and harmony in its Hosin-sul techniques, true to the motto "no breaking - no Hapkido".


Hwarangdo was founded by the brothers Dr. Lee Joo-bang and Lee Joo-sang were founded after they had learned from various Hapkido masters and, according to their own statements, from teachers of other martial arts. In 1962, Lee Joo-bang founded the Hwarang Kwan ("Hall of Hwarang") in Seoul .


The Oh-Do-Kwan teaching system was developed by Klaus Schuhmacher in 1986.

Progressive Hapkido

Progressive Hapkido is a modern self-defense system that uses a new non-dan teaching method. It was created in 1997 by Klaus Schuhmacher as an alternative to the usual teaching processes.

Styles trained in Germany (alphabetical)


Hapkido is offered by various schools, which in turn are united in associations. Kup and Dangrade (belt levels), techniques and exams vary from school to school. The following list of associations is not exhaustive.

Hapkido world organizations

  • The The Korean Hapkido Federation ( 대한 합기도 협회 "Daehan Hapkido Hyop Hoe") (KHF) was founded in 1971 under the name "Korea Hapkido Association" and is since 1990 officially "Korean Hapkido Federation". The KHF is recognized by the South Korean government and is believed to be the largest Korean Hapkido association. The President of the KHF is Master Oh, Se Lim.
  • The Hapkidowon - World Hapkido Headquarters was founded by Grand Master Hong Sik Myung in 1981 in Michigan , USA.
  • The World Kido Association ("Ki Do Hae") is another large Korean association with a regional focus on schools in the southern part of South Korea.

International associations

  • The World HapKiDo Association was founded by Master Choi Hui-son in the USA and sees itself as an international association.
  • The International Combat Hapkido Federation is the largest non-Korean Hapkido organization worldwide. It was founded by John Pellegrini (9th Dan). Seminars are held regularly in Munich and other places for training and qualification.
  • The International Hapkido Cooperation is an international association in Europe and particularly represented in Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, Belgium and Italy. It has been organizing European championships since 1991.
  • The Do Am Hapkido Association licenses the dissemination and teaching of Hapkido in the name of Grand Master Bangs and sets uniform and binding quality standards for teaching and teachers. Its members are individuals and associations. For the training and further qualification of its members, it regularly organizes seminars in Stuttgart .
  • The World Community Sin Moo Hapkido is a worldwide association founded by Dojunim Ji Han Jae to promote and support the Sin Moo Hapkido style.
  • Since March 2010 the European Hwal-Moo-Hapkido schools have been organized in the European Hwal Moo Do Federation . Previously, these schools were in the Korea Hwal Moo Do Association (founded as the Korean Hwal Moo Hapkido Association ). This split was done to simplify the overall organization of schools in Europe. There are still very good relationships with the Korean Association and its grandmaster Byeog-Tea Moon (9th Dan). The European Hwal Moo Do Federation has been working under the World Hwal Moo Do Federation since 2012, also under the direction of Grand Master Byeog-Tea Moon (9th Dan).
  • The International Jun Do Hapkido Federation is still a young association that is currently mainly represented in Germany and South Korea. Jun Do Hapkido is a modern self-defense system that was developed and modified by Cho Seong-Ha.
  • The International Shinson Hapkido Association, founded by Ko Myong, is based in Darmstadt .
  • The Hanminjok Hapkido Federation, based in Seoul, was founded in 2002 by Grand Master Seo In-sun. It is closely linked to the World Kido Federation.
  • The Daehanminguk Hapkido Hyub Hwe (Daehanminguk Hapkido Federation) was founded in 2011 in Korea. In Europe it is represented by Daehanminguk Hapkido Europe.
  • The World Independent Hap-Ki-Do Federation was founded in 1987 by Klaus Schuhmacher as an international, independent umbrella and professional association for all schools and teaching areas of Hap-Ki-Do.
  • The Urban Combat Hapkido Federation based in Kristianstad / Sweden [1]

German associations

  • The German Hapkido Association e. V. (DHB) tries to unite all Hapkido styles under one roof in order to make the sport more popular. For the clubs that are interested in tournaments, he organizes a German hapkido championship every two years as well as many courses throughout Germany. The largest member state association is the North Rhine-Westphalian Hapkido Association (NWHV) with over 1300 members.
  • The German Hapkido Federation (DHF) was founded in 1994 by Grand Master Josef Römers and organizes the Hankido style . It is the only association that has been accepted into the International HK D Federation , the umbrella organization for Hankido based in South Korea.
  • The HKD-AKADEMIE-SEO & HKD Germany Federation is a Federal Academy of Korean Martial Arts and a teaching institute for Hankido, Hapkido and Hanguldo in Germany.
  • German Hapkido Union is an amalgamation of the Hapkido organizations of Grand Master Guido Böse, Master Björn Wiegandt and Master Jens Schimmel.

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Dakin Burdick: Hapkido and allied arts in Korea. 2001, accessed June 24, 2013 (Translated by Thomas Kuklinski-Rhee, Seoul, South Korea, 2005).
  2. a b Interview with Lim Hyun-Soo, 9th Dan Hapkido. In: Black Belt Magazine. September 2006, accessed October 29, 2015 .
  3. Dr. Kimm He-young: "History of Korea and Hapkido", Hando Press, Baton Rouge, LA: 2008. pp. 259-262
  4. Hentz, Eric (editor), Taekwondo Times Vol. 16, No. 8. Article by Mike Wollmershauser The Beginning of Hapkido; An interview with Hapkido Master Seo, Bok-Seob. Tri-Mount Publications, Iowa 1996.
  5. Joseph K. Sheya: Interview Choi Yong-sul. (No longer available online.) 1982, archived from the original on June 5, 2013 ; accessed on January 1, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.hapkido-info.net
  6. a b Dr. Kimm He-Young: "Hapkido" (also "The Hapkido Bible"). Andrew Jackson Press, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 1991
  7. Hendrik Rubbeling: Taekkyon - Like water and wind. Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2017, p. 208.
  8. Choi Hong-hi: "Taekwon-Do, The Korean Art of Self-Defense": A Text Book for Beginning and Advanced Students. Hong Kong: Everbest Printing Co and the International Taekwon-Do Federation, 1972
  9. Hapkido Education Center. Retrieved October 29, 2015 .
  10. Detlef Klos: Pak In Shyuk - The technical genius. In: North Rhine-Westphalian Hapkido Association e. V. Accessed September 21, 2019 .
  11. ^ Detlef Klos: Karl-Heinz Kickuth, father of the NWHV. In: North Rhine-Westphalian Hapkido Association e. V. Accessed September 21, 2019 .
  12. ^ Website of the Shinson Hapkido Darmstadt
  13. a b European Jungki Hapkido and Kuhapdo Network. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on February 22, 2015 ; Retrieved June 25, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.jungkikwan.eu
  14. Hapkiyusul YongsulKwan. Retrieved July 1, 2013 .
  15. Barrie Restall: Yong Sul Kwan: History of the Korean Hapkido Hapkiyusul Headquarters. In: Taekwondo Times. November 2006
  16. Jason Lawrence: What's Your Flavor? In: Australasian Taekwondo. Volume 15, No. 2
  17. Kimm He-Young: History of Korea and Hapkido. Andrew Jackson Press, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 2008
  18. Korea Hapkido Hapkiyusul YongsulKwan Official site. Retrieved June 28, 2013 .
  19. Kimm He-Young: History of Korea and Hapkido. Andrew Jackson Press, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 2008.
  20. Barrie Restall: Yong Sul Kwan: History of the Korean Hapkido Hapkiyusul Headquarters. In: Taekwondo Times. November 2006
  21. a b Part 1: Unifying Hapkido will grow it to an International Martial Art. (No longer available online.) January 2006, archived from the original on March 10, 2007 ; Retrieved June 24, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.kidohae.com
  22. a b Detlef Klos: Ji Han-Jae - The namesake. In: North Rhine-Westphalian Hapkido Association e. V. Accessed September 21, 2019 .
  23. ^ Marc Tedeschi: Hapkido: Traditions, Philosophy, Technique. Weatherhill Inc., Thrumbull (USA) 2000
  24. Traditional Korean martial arts (Kuk Sool). Retrieved June 27, 2013 .
  25. ^ Association website of the German Hapkido Federation. Retrieved October 29, 2015 .
  26. Website of the HKD-AKADEMIE-SEO. Retrieved October 29, 2015 .


German works

  • Kim Sou Bong: Hapkido Basics and Techniques of Korean Self Defense. Falken-Verlag, Niedernhausen 1976, ISBN 978-3-8068-0379-2 .
  • Juerg Ziegler: Korean flying eagle Hap Ki Do . Self-published, Zurich 1989, ISBN 3-909244-01-7 .
  • Gerhard Schöneberger, Hartmut G. Sparschuh: Hapkido The high art of Korean self-defense. Axel Schönberger Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. 1993, ISBN 3-927884-40-5 .
  • Ewald Pilz: Hap Ki Do basic training . Self-published, Graz 1993, ISBN none.
  • Kim Sou Bong: Hap-Ki-Do Korean self-defense according to the grandmaster's teaching system. Falken-Verlag, Niedernhausen 1989, ISBN 978-3-8068-0379-2 .
  • Ko Myong: Shinson Hapkido, movement for life. Shinson-Hapkido-Association, Darmstadt 1994, ISBN 3-9804195-0-9 .
  • Christian Bülow: Hapkido: The Korean martial art . Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt 2004, ISBN 3-8334-0776-X .
  • Detlef Klos: Hapkido: Korean art of self-defense . Pro Business, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-86805-336-4 .

English works

  • Bong Soo Han: HAPKIDO Korean Art of Self-Defense. Ohara Publications, USA 1974, ISBN 0-89750-011-3 .
  • Kwang-Sik Myung: Korean Hapkido: Ancient Art of Masters. Korea Textbook, Korea 1976.
  • Kwang-Sik Myung: Hapkido Weapons: Vol. One. The Knife Techniques DAN KUM SUL. Sam Mun Printing, Korea 1988.
  • Kwang-Sik Myung: Hapkido Weapons: Vol. Two. The Cane Techniques JANG SUL. Sam Mun Printing, Korea 1988.
  • Kwang-Sik Myung: Hapkido Weapons: Vol. Three. The Forms Techniques HYONG SAE. Sam Mun Printing, Korea 1988.
  • Kwang-Sik Myung: Hapkido: Special Self Protection Techniques. Seolim Publishing, Korea 1993, ISBN 89-7186-199-1 .
  • Robert K. Spear: HAPKIDO The Integrated Fighting Art. Unique Publications, USA 1988, ISBN 0-86568-079-5 .
  • Scott Shaw: HAPKIDO Korean Art of Self-Defense . Charles E. Tuttle, USA 1996, second edition 1998, ISBN 0-8048-2074-0 .
  • Hui Son Choe: Practical Hap Ki Do Textbook: The korean martial art of self defense . Hui Son Choe Publications, Seattle 1998, ISBN 0-9668254-1-1 .
  • Hui Son Choe: Ki-Bon-Gi-Sool: The korean martial art of self defense . Hui Son Choe Publications, Seattle 1998, ISBN 0-9668254-0-3 .
  • Marc Tedeschi: Hapkido: Traditions, Philosophy, Technique . Weatherhill Inc., Thrumbull (USA) 2000, ISBN 0-8348-0444-1 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Hapkido  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Hapkido  - collection of images, videos and audio files