Bruce Lee ( Chinese 李小龍 / 李小龙 , Pinyin Lǐ Xiǎolóng , Jyutping Lei 5 Siu 2 Lung 4 , Cantonese Lee Siu-Lung , born November 27, 1940 in San Francisco ; † July 20, 1973 in Hong Kong ; born Lee Jun-fan 李振藩 , Lǐ Zhènfán , Jyutping Lei 5 Zan 3 faan 4 ) was a Sino-American martial artist , martial arts instructor, and actor . He is considered an icon of martial arts film and is considered by many to be the greatest martial artist of the 20th century . He developed the martial arts style Jeet Kune Do .
Childhood and youth
Bruce Lee was born on November 27, 1940 - according to Chinese astrology in the year of the dragon under the element metal - in the Chinese Hospital of the Chinatown of San Francisco as the fourth child of the Chinese actor Lee Hoi Chuen ( 李海泉 , Lǐ Hǎiquán , Jyutping Lei 5 Hoi 2 cyun 4 , Cantonese Li Hoi Chuen ) and the German-Chinese Grace Ho ( 何愛瑜 / 何爱瑜 , Hé Àiyú , Jyutping Ho 4 Oi 3 jyu 4 ). Since he was born in the United States, he had both Chinese and US citizenship. His mother was the daughter of Ho Kom-Tong ( 何 甘棠 , Hé Gāntáng , Jyutping Ho 4 Gam 1 tong 4 ) and the niece of Robert Ho-Tung ( 何 東 爵士 / 何 东 爵士 ), both of whom were well-respected Hong Kong businessmen.
In Chinese usage, the family name is mentioned first, so Bruce Lee's maiden name is Lee Jun Fan ( 李振藩 ) in Cantonese . “ Jun ” ( 振 , zhèn , Jyutping zan 3 ) literally means “drive, spur, shake up, shake off, shake, kindle, inspire” , the syllable “ Fan ” ( 藩 , fān , Jyutping faan 6 ) literally means “garden fence” and refers to the Cantonese name for San Francisco (Cantonese 三藩市 , Jyutping Saam 1 faan 4 Si 5 , Pinyin Sānfān Shì ). “ Jun Fan ” means something like “to inspire and drive yourself to enrich San Francisco (USA)” and thus “to come to prosperity”. During his childhood he was often (especially in the family) called “ Sai Fon - little phoenix ” ( 細 鳳 / 细 凤 , Xìfèng , Jyutping Sai 3 fung 6 ), a feminine-sounding name that can actually be both female and male can. The reason was that Bruce's parents' first son had died as a child. They believed that the gods could possibly take this son away from them. That is why he was given a maiden name to “trick” the gods. Sometimes in the family he was also called “ Mo Si Ting ” ( Cant . 冇 時 停 / 冇 时 停 , Jyutping mou 5 si 4 ting 4 ), which means something like “never sit down”, “be constantly active” and aptly described his personality. His world-famous English name "Bruce" was probably given by the doctor Mary Glover; however, he only used it later, especially during his time in the USA.
Lee's father, Lee Hoi Chuen, was one of the leading actors in Cantonese opera and regional films at the time, which is why he toured the world frequently with operas. He also traveled to the United States and performed in numerous Chinese communities. At that time, World War II spread to Hong Kong and resulted in the occupation of Hong Kong by Japanese troops . Although many of his fellow actors stayed in the United States as a result, Lee Hoi Chuen and his wife traveled back to Hong Kong three months after the birth of their son and spent "three years and eight months" A ( 三年 零 八個月 , Sān nián líng bā gè yuè , Jyutping Saam 1 nin 1 ling 4 baat 3 go 3 jyut 6 ) under Japanese rule. The long crossing to Hong Kong and the change in climatic conditions made it difficult for Bruce, who was ailing in his early childhood. After the Japanese surrender and the restoration of British administration, Lee Hoi Chuen resumed acting and gained fame during the Hong Kong rebuilding period.
Lee's mother, Grace Ho, was descended from the Ho-tungs , one of the richest and most powerful clans in Hong Kong. She was the niece of Sir Robert Ho-tung , the clan's patriarch.
The young Bruce Lee grew up in a wealthy and privileged environment, but the Japanese occupation left a strong mark on him. Lee's mother often said that her son, who was then not yet five, went out onto the balcony of her house and raised his fist against the Japanese Zeros circling in the sky . After the end of the war and the return of British rule, Lee's neighborhood degenerated into an overcrowded, dangerous, and gang rivalry environment, largely due to the huge numbers of refugees who took refuge in the British Crown Colony after the establishment of the Communist People's Republic of China Hong Kong searched.
After completing elementary school, Lee was admitted to a renowned Catholic boys' school in Hong Kong , La Salle College - 喇 沙 書院 / 喇 沙 书院 - in Kowloon at the age of twelve . As a teenager, Lee, like so many other young Chinese in Hong Kong at the time, was treated unkindly and ridiculed by English classmates because they felt they were superior to the Chinese. Due to his rebellious nature, Bruce Lee did not put up with this and, together with his friends, mocked his English classmates, which then usually led to fights. This experience shaped him and he decided to learn a martial art . His first teacher was his father, who taught him the basics of the Wu style of Taijiquan . However, since the slowness of the exercises and movements in Taijiquan did not correspond to his nature, his mother was finally willing to finance him to teach a martial art.
At the age of 13 Bruce Yip Man was introduced, one of the most famous masters of Wing Chun Kung Fu . For five years (1954–1959) he trained incessantly. However, after just a year, most of Yip Man's students refused to train with Bruce after learning of his mixed race. At the time, China was against teaching non-Asian students martial arts techniques. Bruce 'then sparring partner Hawkins Cheung stated, "Probably fewer than six people in the whole Wing Chun clan were personally taught, or even partly taught, by Yip Man". ("Presumably fewer than six people in the entire Wing Chung clan were personally trained by Yip Man or even partially trained by him.") Nevertheless, Lee showed great interest in Wing Chun and trained privately with Yip Man and Wong Shun Leung in 1955. He revered Yip Man as a wise teacher and visited him in later years.
Among other things, Lee learned kicking techniques from Taekwondo master Jhoon Rhee, since high athletic kicks are not taught in Wing Chun. Lee initially used his new skills to beat his adversaries. However, he quickly came to realize that the real value of a martial art was to instill confidence in physical combat skills to the point where one no longer felt the constant need to defeat a person's honor by fighting.
He improved his skills through hard physical training and was thus capable of tremendous performance. He defeated z. B. in a school boxing championship his English opponent. As a gifted dancer, he won the Cha-Cha-Cha championship in Hong Kong in 1958; the nimble movements of this dance style would later become one of its trademarks.
Departure - Life in America
However, his school grades suffered greatly from Bruce's enthusiasm for Wing Chun, Cha-Cha-Cha and women. In 1956 he was expelled from La Salle College for insubordination, poor school grades and his reputation as a troublemaker and transferred to St. Francis Xavier's College. There he also took part in a school boxing championship organized by his school and the British King George V High School . After the easier eliminations, he met three-time champion Gary Elms, whom he knocked down in the third round. At that time the rivalry between the students of the various martial arts schools was quite high, which often resulted in street fights. Bruce Lee also took part in these with other students of Yip Man.
“I was a punk and went out looking for fights. We used chains and pens with knives hidden inside them. "
“I was a street kid and I looked for fights. We used chains and pens with knives hidden in them. "
Yip Man tried as best he could to keep his students away from such street fights and instead encouraged them to take part in fair athletic competitions, but was ultimately unable to prevent the former entirely. In one of these street fights Bruce knocked out his opponent's teeth (other source: broken jaw) and was then reported by his parents. The police handed Lee over to his parents' care, saying that further offenses could result in jail time for him.
“The police detective came and he says' Excuse me Mr. Lee, your son is really fighting bad in school. If he gets into just one more fight I might have to put him in jail '. "
“The policeman came and said, 'Sorry, Mr. Lee, your son is really a bad ass at school. If he gets involved in a fight again, then I would have to put him in jail. '"
Because of this incident, the supposedly better school opportunities and to ensure that Lee could continue to keep the American citizenship, his parents decided to send the 18-year-old to San Francisco . In April 1959, he traveled to the United States on board an American President Lines steamer with only 100 US dollars in his luggage. On this 17-day trip, Lee made some cash by giving Cha-Cha-Cha lessons to first class passengers .
Career and Success
For a while, he lived with an old friend of his father's in San Francisco, where he continued to earn some money as a dance teacher. He only stayed here for a relatively short time; Just a few months later, Bruce got a job offer from an acquaintance of his father's named Ruby Chow, a restaurant owner. Bruce took this opportunity and traveled to Seattle to join her , where he moved into the apartment through Chow's Restaurant and worked as an usher and waiter. From then on, Lee concentrated solely on his education, catching up with his high school degree at Seattle Central Community College during the day while he worked in the restaurant in the evening. In March 1961, he enrolled at the University of Washington , where he began studying acting . Later came philosophy , psychology and other subjects added.
In his spare time, he gave kung fu lessons to interested fellow students in backyards, parks and on campus, including Bruce Lee's first student and assistant Jesse R. Glover , Taky Kimura, who would later become his first official assistant trainer and friend for life, as well Bruce Lee's future wife, Linda Emery .
In late 1963, after spending the summer with his family in Hong Kong, Lee returned to Seattle, where he opened his first official Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute on University Way, near the college campus. Bruce Lee and Linda Emery married on August 17, 1964 and moved to Oakland together , where they initially lived in the home of James Yimm Lee. Bruce Lee and James, also a passionate martial artist, met through mutual acquaintances and quickly became inseparable friends. Lee had great faith in James and put him in his second Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute in Oakland as his assistant coach.
Because of the exclusivity of its kwoons (training facilities), the two institutes were only moderately successful financially, and the income was initially insufficient to move into their own house with Linda, who has since become pregnant. Nevertheless, Lee devoted himself with great perfection and passion to the development of his own martial art method, which in the following years became known as Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do (English: "The way of the intervening / intercepting fist").
In 1964 Bruce Lee accepted the invitation of Ed Parker, the so-called "father" of American Kenpo Karate , to demonstrate and explain Kung Fu , which was still completely unknown in the western world , at the first international karate championships in Long Beach , California . The so-called One Inch Punch , which Lee presented to the astonished professional audience during this demonstration, became one of his most famous trademarks. From a very short distance (1 inch = about 2.54 cm; hence the name) he punched out a punch that made the opponent fall backwards. His appearance should be the big turning point in his life. The demonstration was watched by many people, both on site and on TV. Among them was Hollywood star hairdresser Jay Sebring , who told television producer William Dozier , who was looking for an Asian actor for his television series (Charlie Chan's) Number One Son , of Lee's skills and appeal to the audience. Dozier contacted Ed Parker and asked him to videotape the show. Dozier was also very impressed by Bruce Lee's stage presence and immediately invited him for test recordings in Los Angeles , which were mutually satisfactory. Because the Batman series of his Greenway Production Company had started extremely successfully, Dozier decided, however, to give priority to the production of another television series, also based on a cartoon character, entitled The Green Hornet . So Lee had to wait more than a year before hearing from Dozier again.
On February 1, 1965, Linda gave birth to their first child, Brandon Bruce Lee ( 李國豪 ). Lee proudly referred to him as the only blond, blue-eyed Chinese in the world. But his birth was overshadowed a week later by news of the death of Lee's father. Bruce Lee immediately flew to Hong Kong for the funeral; Linda and Brandon followed him a few days later, where they lived in the Lee family home for four months. Lee, striving to continue his film career in Hollywood , remained in constant contact with William Dozier. In September 1965, the young family flew back to the United States, where they initially spent another four months with Linda's family in Seattle before they finally returned to Oakland.
After Dozier's "OK" for The Green Hornet , Linda and Bruce Lee moved to Los Angeles in March 1966; Here Lee opened the third Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute in Chinatown , with Ed Parker's student Dan Inosanto as his assistant coach. In Los Angeles he took his first and only formal acting class organized for him by 20th Century Fox . The Green Hornet series was discontinued after only six months and 26 episodes aired because of the low ratings. Still, the film role of the martial arts experienced "Kato" Bruce Lee gained a large following of enthusiastic teenagers and adults. With the help and influence of such prominent Hollywood stars like James Coburn , Steve McQueen and screenwriter Stirling Silliphant , in the meantime took training hours at Lee and now good friends had become of him, he was able to guest appearances on television shows like Ironside, Blondie and Here Come the Brides continue stay in the public eye. At the same time, his great reputation as a kung fu expert led to some of the best karate fighters, such as Joe Lewis , Chuck Norris , Mike Stone and Louis Delgado , exchanging information with him and sometimes taking private lessons with him.
In 1968 he had his first appearance in a full-length Hollywood film in Marlowe at the side of leading actor James Garner . On April 19, 1969, daughter Shannon Lee ( 李 香 凝 ) was born. In the same year, Lee addressed James Coburn and Stirling Silliphant with his idea of the "ultimate martial arts film". However, despite initial enthusiasm on the part of Warner Brothers in terms of the script for Circle of Iron (The Silent Flute) was the film studio eventually dropped the project because of implementation difficulties.
In 1970 Bruce Lee and Stirling Silliphant began working together on the pilot episode of the television series Longstreet , in which Lee literally played himself in the role of the martial arts expert, which earned him an extremely positive audience response. During a short visit to Hong Kong, Lee was surprised to find that his role as Kato in the series Green Hornet had met with enthusiastic approval from the Chinese audience. The series was broadcast on all channels and simply renamed The Kato Show out of pure enthusiasm for its compatriot . The media interest in Bruce Lee was correspondingly high, and therefore the many radio and television interviews that he gave from then on soon earned him numerous offers from film producers in Hong Kong and Taiwan. The Shaw brothers , who at that time held almost a monopoly position in the Hong Kong film industry, presented him with a long-term contract, which Lee refused because of the low fee. Almost at the same time, Raymond Chow , an aspiring film producer, owner of the Golden Harvest Studios and avowed competitor of the Shaw brothers, made him a lucrative offer for two feature films in which Lee would each play the leading role. Although Lee still saw his cinematic future in the USA, he accepted Raymond Chow's offer and began filming his first feature film Bruce Lee - The Death Fist of Cheng Li in Thailand in July 1971 . The good reviews he has since received for his role in the pilot episode of Longstreet prompted Paramount Pictures to extend Lee's engagement with three more episodes. Lee signed a corresponding contract after filming in Thailand was finished. After these other Longstreet episodes were broadcast, both Paramount Pictures and Warner Brothers showered him with tempting offers. Nevertheless, accompanied by Linda and the children, he initially returned to Hong Kong to fulfill his contract with Raymond Chow. The Big Boss premiered in October 1971 and was an instant hit. The film beat all previous cinema records on the Mandarin film circuit. In the same year, filming began on Lee's second film Bruce Lee - Fist of Fury , which again set the box office record for The Big Boss at the premiere in March 1972 .
After these financially extremely successful films, which were accompanied by great difficulties during the shooting, Bruce Lee wanted to implement his own ideas and views on the martial arts and filmmaking in his next film. This is how the script for The Death Claw Strikes Again came about . For this film, which was shot in Rome , among others , he engaged the two karate world champions Chuck Norris and Bob Wall . The fights choreographed by Lee would go down in film history. Lee broke all records again with his new film, which grossed more than five million Hong Kong dollars in Hong Kong alone in 1972. He then began filming Bruce Lee - My Last Battle (Game of Death) . However, they were interrupted and never completed, since he in the meantime to star in Enter the Dragon (Enter the Dragon) , had a made by Warner Brothers and Golden Harvest, prestigious Chinese-American co-production, signed. In February 1973, the shooting of this film began in Hong Kong under the direction of Robert Clouse , which Bruce Lee posthumously brought the long-awaited recognition in Hollywood and in the early 1970s triggered the worldwide "Kung Fu Craze". When Game of Death finally hit theaters in 1978, it was completely different from Bruce Lee's original concept. It wasn't until 1999 that British author Bey Logan found this original concept in the Golden Harvest archives. In the 2001 documentary Bruce Lee - The Path of a Fighter by John Little, the recovered film fragments can be seen for the first time.
Although his film career began at the age of three months, Bruce Lee referred to his role in The Beginning of A Boy , in which he starred at the age of six, as his actual acting debut. At the age of eight, a second role followed, which earned him the nickname "Lǐ Xiǎolóng" (Little Dragon Lee); from then on he was known under this name in the entire Mandarin Film Circuit. In The Orphan , he finally had his first leading role at the age of 17. By the time he was 18, his filmography comprised 20 films.
The filming of The Man with the Death Claw (orig. Enter The Dragon ) took Lee so much physically and mentally that he collapsed on the afternoon of May 10, 1973 in the corridors of the Golden Harvest Studios. He was immediately rushed to the hospital with shortness of breath and convulsions. After a thorough examination in Hong Kong and then in Los Angeles, a cerebral edema and an epileptic seizure were diagnosed.
After prescribing various medications, Bruce and Linda Lee returned to Hong Kong for the filming. Here Lee wanted to finish the ongoing post-production and then return to Los Angeles with his family. During discussions on the film Game of Death with his film partner Betty Ting Pei and Raymond Chow on the evening of July 20, 1973, he was admitted to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong, unconscious after taking a painkiller , because Raymond Chow called an ambulance through a trusted doctor. Lee had rested after the exhausting day at his film partner Betty Ting Pei's and received a headache pill from her. His body showed no reaction to any attempt at resuscitation by the doctors.
According to an autopsy report and various medical reports, Bruce Lee died as a result of brain swelling caused by an allergic reaction to the pain medication he was given. According to a study from 2005, he could also have died from an epileptic fit in which the heart and lungs failed. Bruce Lee passed away at the age of 32.
The documentary series Autopsy dealt with Lee's death in July 2017. A forensic pathologist named Dr. Michael Hunter read through all of the medical records. Much had been suspected over the years: allergies to headache medication, SUDEP , cannabis or even murder. Hunter went through all the guesses and argued them back with good arguments. British coroner Dr. Donald Teare (1911–1979), who examined Lee's corpse in 1973 and carried out the autopsy of Jimi Hendrix as early as 1970 , diagnosed an allergic reaction to the ASA headache tablet (brand name Equagesic , German aspirin ) as the cause of death . Hunter, on the other hand, concluded that although Lee died from the swelling of the brain, it was caused by Addison's disease , which is likely due to Lee's continuous use of cortisone . In the summer of 1970, Lee had suffered a serious back injury, which in his medical record as a slipped disc , that disc herniation is called. His doctors at the time had advised him never to train again, but thanks to regular cortisone injections he was able to train normally again after six months. All of the symptoms Lee showed in the weeks and months before his death correspond to an adrenal crisis, among others. a. the patient's skin turns reddish-brown, he loses both weight and appetite, and sweats a lot. Lee's medical record also states that in November 1972 he had his sweat glands removed from under his armpits. In the months that followed, his skin began to turn reddish-brown and he lost weight, both of which can be seen in Enter the Dragon . At this point he weighed only 56 kg, while he previously had 61-65 kg. His widow Linda also confirmed that he had barely had an appetite for the past few months. Dr. Hunter says at the end of the documentary that at the time the side effects of steroids and cortisone were not as well known as they are today (as of 2017).
On July 25, 1973, there was a solemn mourning ceremony in Kowloon , at which, in addition to relatives and closest friends, many stars and film people were present to pay their final respects to Bruce Lee. A few days later, Linda Lee transferred the coffin to the United States, where Bruce Lee was buried on July 30, 1973 in Seattle in Lake View Cemetery . His pallbearers were u. a. Steve McQueen , James Coburn and his brother Robert Lee. Bruce Lee paved the way for many now famous martial arts actors such as Jackie Chan , Chuck Norris , Jean-Claude Van Damme , Tony Jaa , Stephen Chow , Sammo Hung , Jet Li , Donnie Yen , Steven Seagal and Michael Dudikoff .
On April 28, 1993, 20 years after his death, Bruce Lee was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame . Hundreds of people gathered that day to pay tribute and gratitude to the "King of Kung Fu" again. Among them were widow Linda Lee-Cadwell, daughter Shannon, brother Robert, Bob Wall, John Saxon and Jean-Claude Van Damme.
In the same year the film Dragon - The Bruce Lee Story - a biography of Bruce Lee was released. He himself was played by Jason Scott Lee . His wife worked on the script.
On July 21, 2003, on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of his death, Things Asian wrote an article: After 30 years, his legend still remained strong and he had established his place in the “people of martial artists” as the greatest martial artist of all time. On November 26, 2005, a statue of Bruce Lee was unveiled in Mostar on his 65th birthday. It was built on the initiative of the Mostar youth group “Urban Movement Mostar” with financial support from the German Federal Cultural Foundation . According to the movement spokesman Nino Raspudić, the choice fell on the late Kung Fu legend because everyone could identify with him. The statue is intended to set an example against the ethnic division in the Balkans.
On November 27, 2005, another statue in honor of Bruce Lee was unveiled on the Avenue of Stars in Kowloon Harbor , Hong Kong. The bronze statue is 2.5 m tall and weighs 600 kg. It was created by the well-known Chinese sculptor Cao Chongen in Guangzhou and is labeled Star of the Century: Bruce Lee .
- 1941: Golden Gate Girl
- 1946: The Birth of Mankind
- 1948: Wealth Is Like a Dream (Fu gui fu yun)
- 1949: Sai See in the Dream (Meng li xi shi)
- 1950: The Kid (Xi lu xiang)
- 1951: Infancy (Ren zhi cu)
- 1953: Blame it on Father / It's Father's Fault (Fu zhi guo)
- 1953: Qian wan ren jia
- 1953: The Guiding Light (Ku hai ming deng)
- 1953: A Mother's Tears (Ci mu lei)
- 1953: In the Face of Demolition (Wei lou chun xiao)
- 1955: Gu xing xue lei
- 1955: Love (Ai)
- 1955: Guerxing
- 1955: Love Part 2 (Ai xia ji)
- 1955: We Owe It to Our Children (Er nu zhai)
- 1956: Zao zhi dang cu wo bu jia
- 1956: Sweet Time Together (Zha dian na fu)
- 1957: The Thunderstorm (Lei yu)
- 1960: The Orphan (Ren hai gu hong)
- 1966–1967: Batman , TV series
- 1966-1967: The Green Hornet (The Green Hornet) , TV series
- 1967: The Boss (Ironside) , TV series
- 1968: Blondie, TV series
- 1969: Here Come the Brides, TV series
- 1969: The third in ambush (Marlowe)
- 1971: Bruce Lee - The Death Fist of Cheng Li (Tang shan da xiong)
- 1971: Longstreet, TV series
- 1972: Bruce Lee - Death greetings from Shanghai (Jing wu men)
- 1972: The death claw strikes again (Meng long guo jiang)
- 1973: Enter the Dragon (Enter the Dragon)
- 1978: Bruce Lee - My Last Fight (Game of Death)
Few sequences of Bruce Lee - My Last Fight had been filmed when Lee died, including the spectacular fight against Kareem Abdul-Jabbar , a five-foot-tall professional basketball player. Years after Lee's death, Robert Clouse turned it into a complete film by using several doubles and numerous snippets from Lee's older films. There are several versions of this film. In addition, 27 years after his death, new excerpts were found, which can be seen in the documentary Bruce Lee - A Warriors Journey .
The film The Secret of the Blind Master (1978) is based on a story by Lee, who was originally supposed to direct the film.
After Lee's death, there were numerous attempts to capitalize on his fame. In English, the term for this "was bruceploitation " (English exploitation "exploitation") coined. Several actors specialized in imitation Bruce Lee. Well-known doppelgangers called themselves z. B. Bruce Li , Bruce Le , Bruce Lai and Bruce Lei . In some films the name "Bruce Lee" was added to the title, in others the leading role was called that. A total of over a hundred such films appeared, many of which were also shown in Germany. Most of them were provided with German dialogues in the Wendel recording studio and distributed in Germany by the Schier-Film company .
- 2000: Bruce Lee: The Way of a Fighter (Original title: Bruce Lee: A Warrior's Journey )
- 2015: Too young to die: Bruce Lee - Hollywood's fist on Arte and ZDF , directed by Annette Baumeister
Computer and console games
- Bruce Lee (1983)
- Kung-Fu Master (1984, about Game of Death )
- Dragon - The Bruce Lee Story (Sega Mega Drive, Super Nintendo (1993), Game Gear, Sega Master System, Atari Jaguar) (1995, based on the movie Dragon )
- Bruce Lee - Quest of the Dragon (X-Box) (2002)
- Bruce Lee: Return of the Legend (GBA) (2003)
- Bruce Lee: Dragon Warrior (iPhone / iPod / Samsung Wave (Bada))
After all, there are many video game characters based not only on fighting style but also visually on Lee and his well-known clothing, including:
- Marshall and Forest Law from Tekken
- Maxi from Soulcalibur
- Liu Kang from Mortal Kombat
- Fei Long from Street Fighter
- Kim Dragon from World Heroes
- Jann Lee from Dead or Alive
- Lee Sin from League of Legends
- Bruce Lee from EA Sports UFC
- Kicklee from Pokémon
The Guangzhou- based Chinese restaurant chain Kungfu uses a stencil very similar to the late actor Bruce Lee as its graphic company logo . The American actress and daughter of Bruce Lee, Shannon Emery Lee ( 李 香 凝 ), filed a copyright infringement lawsuit in a Shanghai court in December 2019 .
- Linda Lee: The Bruce Lee Story . Falken-Verlag, Niederhausen 1993, ISBN 3-8068-1415-5 .
- Bruce Lee: Jeet Kune Do - Bruce Lee's Commentaries on the Martial Way . Charles E. Tuttle, Boston 1997, ISBN 0-8048-3132-7 .
- Bruce Lee, Linda Lee: Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do . Falken-Verlag, Niederhausen 1993, ISBN 3-8068-0440-0 . (Originally: Tao Of Jeet Kune Do ).
- Bruce Lee, M. Uyehara: Bruce Lee's Fighting Method. Volume 1: Self-Defense Techniques . Ohara Publications, California 2005, ISBN 0-89750-050-4 .
- Bruce Lee, M. Uyehara: Bruce Lee's Fighting Method. Volume 2: Basic Training . Ohara Publications, 2006, ISBN 0-89750-051-2 .
- Bruce Lee, M. Uyehara, Mike Plane: Bruce Lee's Fighting Method. Volume 3: Skill In Techniques . Ohara Publications, California 2006, ISBN 0-89750-052-0 .
- Bruce Lee, M. Uyehara: Bruce Lee's Fighting Method. Volume 4: Advanced Techniques . Ohara Publications, California 2005, ISBN 0-89750-053-9 .
- Bruce Lee (Illustrator): Chinese Gung Fu - The Philosophical Art Of Self-Defense . Ohara Publications, California 1989, ISBN 0-89750-112-8 .
- Bruce Lee: The Art Of Expressing The Human Body . Charles E. Tuttle, Boston 1998, ISBN 0-8048-3129-7 .
- Jesse Glover : Bruce Lee Between Wing Chun and Jeet Kune Do . Glover Publications, 1976, OCLC 10517764
- Fiaz Rafiq: Bruce Lee: Conversations - Life and Legacy of a Legend . Translated into German by Thorsten Boose. Shaker Media, Aachen 2010, ISBN 978-3-86858-565-0 .
- Greg Roensch: Bruce Lee. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., New York 2002, ISBN 0-8239-3515-9 .
- Matthew Polly: Bruce Lee: a life , New York: Simon & Schuster, 2018, ISBN 978-1-5011-8762-9
- Bruce Lee in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Literature by and about Bruce Lee in the catalog of the German National Library
- Biography, filmography and private pictures on sidekick.it
- Bruce Lee Foundation (English)
- Bruce Lee 1940–1973 on historylink.org (English)
- Bruce Lee Siu-Lung in the Hong Kong Movie Database (Chinese, English)
- Bruce Lee (Lee Siu-Lung, Li Xiaolong) in the Chinese Movie Database (Chinese, English)
- ↑ Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do . Bruce Lee Foundation. Archived from the original on July 23, 2010. Retrieved February 16, 2013 .. In: www.bruceleefoundation.com, accessed January 9, 2020. (English)
- ^ From Icon to Lifestyle, the Marketing of Bruce Lee . In: The New York Times , December 11, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- ↑ Bruce Lee's 70th birth anniversary celebrated . In: The Hindu , November 30, 2010. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- ↑ Linda Lee: The Bruce Lee Story. Ohara Publications, Burbank 1989, ISBN 0-89750-121-7 , p. 20.
- ↑ Sid Campbell, Greglon Lee: Remembering the master: Bruce Lee, James Yimm Lee, and the creation of Jeet Kune Do. Blue Snake Books / Frog, Berkeley 2006, ISBN 1-58394-148-7 , p. 169.
- ^ Robert Clouse: Bruce Lee: the biography. Unique Publications, Burbank 1988, ISBN 0-86568-133-3 , p. 9.
- ↑ Bruce Thomas: Bruce Lee: fighting spirit: a biography. Frog Ltd., Berkeley 2006, ISBN 1-883319-25-0 , pp. 3 , Chapter 1 - Childhood (English, full text in Google Book Search).
- ↑ a b Kom Tong Hall at 7 Castle Road, Mid-levels, Hong Kong - Brief History. (PDF; 546 kB) In: www.aab.gov.hk. Antiquities Advisory Board, accessed January 18, 2016 .
- ↑ Bruce Lee's Chinese first name - 振 藩; Pinyin Zhènfán Cantonese Jun-fan In: Linda Lee: The Bruce Lee Story. Ohara Publications, Burbank 1989, ISBN 0-89750-121-7 .
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Bruce Lee Biography ( Memento from August 22, 2010 in the Internet Archive ). In: www.bruceleefoundation.com, accessed January 9, 2020. (English).
- ↑ a b c d Bruce Lee: the immortal Dragon. January 29, 2002, A&E Television Networks.
- ↑ Grace Lee: Bruce Lee The Untold Story . CFW Enterprise, United States 1980.
- ^ Kom Tong Hall and the Dr Sun Yat-sen Museum. In: www.lcsd.gov.hk. People's Republic of China, January 10, 2005, archived from the original on October 16, 2012 ; accessed on February 10, 2013 .
- ↑ Bruce Thomas: Bruce Lee: fighting spirit: a biography. Frog, Berkeley 2006, ISBN 1-883319-25-0 , p. 14.
- ↑ Bruce Thomas: Bruce Lee: fighting spirit: a biography. Frog, Berkeley 2006, ISBN 1-883319-25-0 , p. 26.
- ^ Sulaiman Sharif: 50 martial arts myths. New Media Entertainment, New York 2009, ISBN 0-9677546-2-3 , 56. ( excerpt )
- ↑ Black Belt: Bruce Lee Collector's. Edition Summer. 1993, p. 19.
- ↑ Sid Campbell, Greglon Lee: Remembering the master: Bruce Lee, James Yimm Lee, and the creation of Jeet Kune Do. Blue Snake Books / Frog, Berkeley 2006 , ISBN 1-58394-148-7 , p. 172.
- ↑ Interview of Jhoon Rhee: About Taekwondo and Bruce Lee. In: taekwondobible.com. Retrieved September 13, 2014 .
- ^ A b The Unofficial Bruce Lee Homepage - About Bruce Lee ( Memento of March 12, 2005 in the Internet Archive ). In: www.bruce-lee.ws, accessed January 9, 2020. (English)
- ^ A b c d e Alyssa Burrows: The Free Encyclopedia of Washington State History - Lee, Bruce (1940-1973). In: www.historylink.org. October 21, 2002, accessed January 9, 2020 .
- ^ Black Belt: Bruce Lee Collector's Edition Summer 1993, p. 18.
- ↑ a b www.bruce-lee-jeet-kune-do.de.
- ↑ Bruce Lee - BIOGRAPHY: Life and Work. In: www.sidekick.it. Retrieved January 9, 2020 .
- ↑ 100 Alumni of the Century - Aumni of the Century from J through O - Lee, Bruce. In: www.washington.edu. Retrieved January 9, 2020 .
- ↑ John Little: Bruce Lee: Artist of Life . Tuttle Publishing , 2001, ISBN 0-8048-3263-3 , p. 32.
- ↑ Bruce Thomas: Bruce Lee: Fighting Spirit: a Biography . Frog, Berkeley, California 1994, ISBN 1-883319-25-0 , p. 42.
- ↑ Bruce Lee origin. Lee Chen fan. In: knerger.de. Retrieved January 9, 2020 (Bruce Lee's grave).
- ^ Alan Low AFP : Bruce Lee legend remains strong 30 years after his death. In: www.thingsasian.com. July 21, 2003, accessed January 9, 2020 .
- ↑ Bangkok Post, November 24, 2005, p. 8.
- ^ They call me “Bruce Lee” ( Memento December 19, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). In: www.beijingvideo.com, accessed January 9, 2020. (English)
- ^ The Bruceploitation Complete List. In: dirtypictures.phpbb8.de. January 1, 1999, accessed January 1, 2000 (all Bruceploitation films released in Germany).
- ↑ dpa : Daughter of Kung Fu legend Bruce Lee sued restaurant chain. In: www.tonight.de. December 27, 2019, accessed January 9, 2020 .
- ^ Dpa: Chinese restaurant chain - Bruce Lee daughter complains. In: ZDF . December 27, 2019, accessed January 9, 2020 .
- ↑ 李小龍 維權 告 快餐 店 集團 - 李 香 凝 索 2.3 億 - "Fast food group indicted by Bruce Lee's rights holder - Shannon Lee demands 210 million yuan". In: Oriental Daily News . December 25, 2019, accessed January 9, 2020 (Chinese).
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Li Jun fan|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||American actor and martial artist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November 27, 1940|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||San Francisco|
|DATE OF DEATH||20th July 1973|
|Place of death||Hong Kong|