Historic department store (Freiburg im Breisgau)
The first municipal department store as the building of the municipal market administration for goods handling and customs clearance in Freiburg was built in the 14th century in Schusterstraße, the first mention dates back to 1378. From 1520, the current building was north of the old department store facing Münsterplatz with a view of the Freiburg Minster built. The completion of the "New Department Store" is dated to 1532. The architect of the building is not properly documented, it is assumed that it was one of the master builders who worked at Freiburg Cathedral at the time, perhaps Lienhart Müller from Ettlingen .
The department store was later redesigned several times. In 1550 a balcony was added, after the sieges of the city in 1714 and 1744 war damage had to be repaired, in 1814 the facade was repainted by Simon Göser . 1880/84 the building was in accordance with the prevailing taste historicizing redesigned with new dormer windows in the style of the Hôtel-Dieu provided. In 1924/25, the changes made in 1884 were reversed according to plans by City Planning Director Karl Gruber and the department store was restored to its previous state. The last extensive renovations were carried out in 1987 to 1991 and 2000.
From 1946 to 1947, the building was the meeting place for the Consultative State Assembly of Baden, and from 1947 to 1951 the historic department store served as the parliament building of the state of Baden .
The building, which is striking because of its decoration and its dark red paint, faces the Münsterplatz with its eaves . A high roof with two storage floors ventilated by dormers is framed by stepped gables . The storage tanks could be equipped through openings and brackets on the west side. The department store has moved to the front of the line of the neighboring buildings and is highlighted. The ground floor is divided into a vaulted arbor with four arcades facing Münsterplatz and two side arcades , which identify the building as a place of trade. The rib vault of the arbor is decorated with keystones with coats of arms. A stone bench runs along the partition wall to the courtyard. A large gate leads into a hall open to the inner courtyard. In addition, a small framed door with the coats of arms of Freiburg and Austria leads into the courtyard, which is only accessible on special occasions. On the beamed ceiling you can still see the large beam from which the city scales were hung. In the courtyard there is a tower with an elaborate spindle-less spiral staircase (Kaiserstiege), which originally formed the main entrance to the great hall.
The entire upper floor of the building is taken up by a hall that opens onto the market square in late Gothic arched curtain windows. It is flanked by two delicate, polygonal oriels covered with colored tiles on the corners of the building. The back of the hall is also open to the courtyard with large windows. The front is decorated with Habsburg sculptures and coats of arms, which were made by Hans Sixt von Staufen between 1530 and 1531 . The canopy-winning sculptures between the windows of the front put Emperor Maximilian I , his son King Philip the Fair and his sons, the Roman Emperor Charles V and the Roman king and later Emperor Ferdinand I . The five of the Order chain of the Order Coats of arms surrounded by the golden fleece under the windows of the two bay windows show the imperial double eagle and the coat of arms of the Habsburg hereditary lands on the outer sloping side . The eaves of the bay windows, which are covered with colored tiles, are decorated with small dazzling water spouts , the drainage of the large roof is via copper gargoyles designed as dragon heads .
The most important interior space is the Kaisersaal , which today serves as a representative event location and can accommodate up to 350 people. It has a stucco ceiling with painted coats of arms and numerous portraits of Habsburg rulers on the walls - they show Emperor Franz I and his wife Maria Theresa , their son and successor to his father as Emperor Joseph II and his wife Isabella von Parma and Emperor Franz II. On the front wall, a large painting shows the siege of the Freiburg Fortress in 1714. The glass paintings in the windows are by Fritz Geiges from 1924. In the bay windows there were also glass paintings that Geiges created in 1884 until 1924 had (today in the Augustinian Museum ). However, the hall was not named after the Roman emperors from the House of Habsburg, but after the German Emperor Wilhelm I , for whom the city of Freiburg held a banquet here on October 3, 1876 as part of the ceremony for the inauguration of the Victory Monument .
In 1776, the Redoutenhaus was built east of the department store building as a ballroom in place of the salt house that had been there since the Middle Ages. Since then, the Kaisersaal has been accessed via a baroque staircase in this building. There are cloakrooms in the entrance area, the foyer of the Kaisersaal is on the first floor and the club room of the Schau-ins-Land history club was set up on the second floor in 1878 based on a design by Fritz Geiges . The founding meeting of the regional association Badische Heimat also took place in the historic department store.
In the building of the department store complex (Altes Kaufhaus) facing Schusterstrasse, there are two smaller rooms that can be used for events on the first floor: the fireplace room for up to 90 people with a mighty fireplace from the 15th century, accessible from the courtyard via a spiral staircase dated 1518 and a stucco ceiling from the 18th century showing the imperial double eagle, as well as the rococo hall, which can hold up to 70 people, with a stucco decoration by the Wessobrunner Franz Anton Vogel from 1751.
In 2016, the Kaisersaal and the foyer received air conditioning that can keep the room temperature up to six degrees below the outside temperature.
On January 25, 2019, a 0-euro note was issued with the image of the historic department store. The historic department store (front) is depicted on the right of the commemorative coin 900 years of Freiburg . Publication date is July 9, 2020.
- Friedrich Hefele: On the building history of the Freiburg department store , in: Journal of the Breisgau History Association "Schau-ins-Land" , 51. – 53. Annual issue 1926, pages 1–24 online
- Hefele, page 9; Ingeborg Schroth : Master Sixt, the sculptor from Staufen , in: magazine of the Breisgau history association "Schau-ins-Land", 74th annual issue 1956, page 86 online
- Württembergisches Landesmuseums Stuttgart (Ed.): Exhibition catalog "Front Austria. Only the tail feather of the imperial eagle" . Württ. Landesmuseum, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-88294-276-2 , p. 390 .
- Hans Schadek: Freiburg, formerly - yesterday - today, The city in the course of the last 100 years , Steinkopf Verlag , 2004, p. 58
- freiburg-online.com: House zur Roten Schär and Redoutenhaus. Archived from the original on November 10, 2009 ; Retrieved November 29, 2012 .
- board in the exhibition 100 Years of Badische Heimat , seen on the Feldberg in June 2010
- bz: Freiburg: Air conditioning for the historic department store. Badische Zeitung, July 11, 2016, accessed on July 11, 2016 .
- two: SONSTNOCHWAS. Badische Zeitung, January 25, 2019, accessed on January 26, 2019 .
- Christopher Ziedler: 900 years of Freiburg. This is the official commemorative coin for Freiburg's city anniversary. , Badische Zeitung, September 5, 2018, accessed on September 10, 2019.